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1 of 48
Which of the following is/are a strategy(ies) for conducting culturally sensitive
evaluations?
A. construct a diverse evaluation team
B. consult articles in the literature relevant to recruiting minorities for research studies
C. examine all instruments being used to ensure they are culturally sensitive and free
from bias
D. all of the above are appropriate strategies
E. none of the above are appropriate strategies
2 of 48
Which scenario often poses a problem for university researchers in making a
confident statement about the success or failure of an agency’s program?
A. Successful evaluation results
B. Unsuccessful evaluation results
C. Mixed evaluation results
D. Qualitative evaluation results
3 of 48
Translating the results of a needs assessment into programs is pretty much free
of politics.
A. True
B. False
4 of 48
What type of survey is utilized to determine the extent of problems in a certain
area and then express the findings as rates affected within the population?
A. empirical
B. evidence-based
C. epidemiologic
D. environmental
5 of 48
Program logic models are like “snapshots” in that they capture what a program
looks like to key stakeholders, at one point in time.
A. True
B. False
6 of 48
The adequacy of a program depends on whether the program results are
sufficient to meet the need for the program.
A. True
B. False
7 of 48
Logic modeling is essentially a quantitative research process.
A. True
B. False
8 of 48
Which of the following is a strategy for ensuring that your evaluation report will
be used by the agency?
A. present it in a way that holds the attention of stakeholders
B. incorporate the needs and concerns of the staff
C. use evaluation as a building process
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
9 of 48
Needs assessments are a final step to take when developing a new program.
A. True
B. False
10 of 48
A researcher tells participants that their identity will not be made available to
anyone who is not directly involved in a study. What level of privacy has the
researcher assured participants?
A. Immunity
B. Confidentiality
C. Anonymity
D. Serendipity
11 of 48
Needs assessments involve comparisons between what is and what should be.
A. True
B. False
12 of 48
Program evaluation and basic research have some similarities. Which of the
following is a difference between the two approaches?
A. beginning with a problem, question or hypotheses
B. a design is developed then data are gathered
C. data are analyzed and a report is written
D. the expected use or utility of the data
13 of 48
Logic models work well in environments where there is a lot of change
happening.
A. True
B. False
14 of 48
Negotiating a contract before beginning the evaluation is one strategy for
managing for the political nature of evaluation.
A. True
B. False
15 of 48
Program outputs are necessary but not sufficient for a program to produce
outcomes.
A. True
B. False
16 of 48
An expressed need is when a need of one group is determined to be the need of
a group with similar characteristics, but you are unable to talk to the other group
directly.
A. True
B. False
17 of 48
A researcher utilizes a survey as well as focus groups to determine the
outcomes of a particular intervention. When analyzing the data, the researcher is
careful to analyze how the different focus groups as well as the survey yield
similar findings (or not). This is called what type of analysis?
A. convergent
B. discriminant
C. qualitative
D. quantitative
18 of 48
If a research participant is cognitively impaired, it is not necessary to seek their
assent to participate in a research study.
A. True
B. False
19 of 48
Formative needs assessments are intended to help to improve existing programs
or services.
A. True
B. False
20 of 48
Before making recordings, researchers must obtain informed consent, except
when:
A. the research is conducted strictly in naturalistic settings and poses no anticipated risk
of personal identification or harm.
B. the research requires deception and consent is obtained after the recordings have
been made.
C. the research is conducted strictly in naturalistic settings and poses no anticipated risk
of personal identification or harm and the research requires deception and consent is
obtained after the recordings have been made.
D. none of the above; there are no exceptions for obtaining informed consent for
recording voices and images in research.
21 of 48
What is a control group?
A. It is the group to which participants are treated or exposed to a manipulation.
B. It is a dependent variable.
C. It is the group that does not receive a treatment.
D. It is rarely used in experiments.
22 of 48
When deciding on the measurement instrument to use, what is the first
consideration?
A. how the program’s success can best be demonstrated
B. the reliability and validity of the instrument
C. the cost of securing the instrument for agency use
D. the empirical support of the instrument
23 of 48
Validity means?
A. Having measures that can be obtained over and over again
B. Having measures that will measure what you think you want to measure
C. Having measures taken only from pre-established surveys
D. Never taking a research design course
24 of 48
Which type of validity is determined when a scale contains items that reflect the
phenomenon of interest in the study?
A. predictive validity
B. concurrent validity
C. face validity
D. content validity
E. construct validity
25 of 48
Reliability means?
A. Being able to get repeated results over and over again that are similar
B. Being able to get results once
C. Being able to measure what you want to measure
D. None of the Above
26 of 48
When a scale is found to be consistent after it is administered to the same group
of participants repeated times, this is a demonstration of what type of reliability?
A. parallel
B. split-half
C. bivariate
D. test-retest
E. none of the above
27 of 48
Why is the Placebo effect a threat to internal validity?
A. Because the results obtained will be due to something other than the treatment
B. Because those in the treatment group were paid
C. Because an event occurred that impacted your findings
D. Because subjects fell out of your study
28 of 48
At best a non-experimental or quasi-experimental designs will be able to
establish?
A. Non-spuriousness and Temporal Order
B. Temporal Order
C. Correlation
D. Correlation and Temporal Order
E. None of the Above
29 of 48
Which of the following is an example of a factor that affects interval validity
instead of external validity?
A. Multiple-treatment interference
B. Organizational context
C. Historical effects
D. Population characteristics
E. Practitioner characteristics
30 of 48
Which of the following statements is/are true about experimental designs?
A. they are the most rigorous of the designs
B. they do not require random assignment to a control or intervention group
C. it is not possible to conduct a study of this design in the social sciences
D. the comparison and control groups do not need to be equivalent
E. all of the above are true
31 of 48
When planning a qualitative research study, what areas typically require the
most work, and therefore must be well-planned in order to meet your budgets
and timeline?
A. sampling strategy
B. data collection and analysis
C. writing the report
D. disseminating the report to the right audience
32 of 48
How do researchers account for individual differences in an experiment,
methodologically?
A. By making sure that participants give full consent prior to the experiment and are
fully debriefed after the experiment.
B. By using random assignment to make individual differences about the same in each
group.
C. By using a test statistic to determine the likelihood that something other than the
manipulation caused differences in a dependent measure between groups.
D. By allowing participants chose which group to participate in, instead of randomly
assigning participants to groups.
33 of 48
A study to determine the impact of a new policy or law in which the evaluator
examines data points before and after passage, without a comparison group, is
which type of design?
A. pre-experimental design
B. quasi-experimental design
C. experimental design
D. single subject design
E. multiple time series
34 of 48
Which research design controls for maturational effects through replication of
the study, comparing current trends to past or historical data?
A. trend analysis
B. counterbalanced
C. multiple groups
D. factorial
E. Solomon four-group
35 of 48
A researcher randomly assigns participants to complete a crossword puzzle with
or without music. The time it takes to complete the crossword puzzle is
compared between groups. The experimental group in this example is:
A. the crossword puzzle group.
B. the no music group.
C. the time to complete puzzle group.
D. the music group.
36 of 48
What is important to include in a qualitative report, because it is often the only
section closely read by those to whom the report is disseminated?
A. introduction
B. methodology, including sampling
C. results, including graphical representation of data
D. conclusions and recommendations
E. references
37 of 48
When conducting a non-experimental design study an event occurs that might
impact your findings. This is an example of _______, which is a threat to internal
validity?
A. Statistical Regression
B. Selection Bias
C. History
D. Mortality
38 of 48
Ecological Fallacy?
A. Means taking group findings and failing to find support for them
B. Means taking individual findings and failing to find support for them
C. Means taking group findings and applying them to individuals
D. Means taking individual findings and applying them to groups
39 of 48
What are the levels of measurement in order from lowest to highest
A. Ratio, Interval, Ordinal, and Nominal
B. Interval, Ordinal, Nominal, and Ratio
C. Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio
D. They cannot be ranked ordered
40 of 48
A key advantage of random assignment is that it makes ________ about the
same in each group.
A. individual differences of participants
B. the levels of the independent variable
C. the dependent variable
D. the timing of a manipulation
Part 3 of 7 – Part 1. Multiple choice
Base your answers to the next 2 questions based on the research design below.
A/C
A/C
X
O
O
41 of 48
What is an issue with this control group?
A. There are none because the assignment was based on randomization
B. There are none because the assignment was based on A/C
C. We do not truly know if the two groups are similar, because a method other than
randomization was used to create them.
D. We do not truly know if the two groups are similar, because the 1st criteria for
causation cannot be established.
42 of 48
Since the bottom group is acting as a control group, how might we create the control
group to reduce error?
A. You cannot because this design does not allow for error reduction
B. You cannot because you are more interested in the O and E is never an issue
C. You create the groups based on matching or other means that will allow them to be
as similar as possible. At the same time you know it will not be perfect and error is still
involved
D. You create the groups based on matching or other means that will allow them to be
as similar as possible. At the same time you know it will reduce the error to zero
establishing the 1st and 2nd criteria for causation
Base your answers to the next 3 questions on the research design below.
A/C
O
X
O
43 of 48
This design does something a snap-shot study does not, which is ____________?
A. Provides us with a non-spurious relationship
B. Establishes causation
C. Provides us with a counterfactual
D. Provides us with 5 controls variables
44 of 48
When compared to a true experimental design, this design does what?
A. Provides us with more T
B. Provides us with more E
C. Provides us with a truer O
D. Cannot establish E or T
E. O will be only equal to E
45 of 48
When a design produces more error what does it produce less of?
A. O
B. T
C. E
D. None of the above
Short Essay-style
Limit your answers to about one single page for each response. Write clearly and
precisely. You may use a full page to formulate your answer, but it is not
essential to fill up all the space. Answer each question succinctly and concisely.
Respond to each question in your own words. Direct quotes from other sources
are unnecessary and will not contribute anything towards your grade.
46 of 48
Define program evaluation and explain what it means to say that all program evaluations
are political.
Short Essay-style
Limit your answers to about one single page for each response. Write clearly and
precisely. You may use a full page to formulate your answer, but it is not
essential to fill up all the space. Answer each question succinctly and concisely.
Respond to each question in your own words. Direct quotes from other sources
are unnecessary and will not contribute anything towards your grade.
47 of 48
Some evaluators have the view that true experiments (randomly controlled trials) are the
only valid way to assess program effectiveness. Discuss this point of view and offer your
own views on this issue. You do not have to agree with this viewpoint—provide a wellreasoned argument for or against this position. Another objection to conducting
randomized controlled trials is that they are unethical – they withhold a program from the
control group in order to see what differences it makes to compare the program and noprogram groups (usually people). What are your views on this objection – under what
conditions might it be ethical (or not) to set up and conduct a randomized experiment?
Longer Essay-style
Limit your answers to no more than two pages for each response. Write clearly
and precisely. You may use up to two pages to formulate your answer, but it is
not essential to fill up all the space. Answer the question succinctly and
concisely.
Respond to the question in your own words. Direct quotes from other sources are
unnecessary and will not contribute anything towards your grade.
48 of 48
You have been asked by the State of Maryland to conduct a study to determine if a new
anti-drug education program will reduce drug use among Maryland High School
Students. The only condition of this study is that you must use the cross-sectional study
design.
You are given 6 months to complete this study and your funds are limited.
Discuss the: Research Design, Sample Design, and Data Design.
Focus this discussion on error, causality, O=T+E, generalizability, and the reliability and
validity of your measures (where appropriate).
Also, make sure you identify the units of analysis with their measurement levels,
independent variable(s), dependent variable(s), and control variable(s) of your study.
In addition, address the following threats to internal validity; selection bias, statistical
regression, and history, and what you would do if they were encountered.

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