113. Follow the instruction to write 1200words management essayThere are 8sources required, 6sources must be from the given sources on instructions. And other two you need to find out by your own way.I have attached an example for you to look aAll the work must be originalTurnitin report is required
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MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE
WMGM102 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
Principles of Management
11pm Friday, Week 3
Term & Year:
Term 6, 2018
NATURE OF THE TASK
This is an individual assessment task.
Students are required to write a 1,200 word essay (excluding the reference list) in response
to the question posed below:
ESSAY TOPIC: Change management
MAIN ESSAY QUESTION:
Sustained competitive advantage is more difficult today than ever before. This is in
no small part due to the uncertain and dynamic business environment. So, to survive,
business needs to “respond”. Unfortunately, 70% of change programs or “responses”
fail. Critically discuss change management fundamentals.
You should critically discuss the following related questions:
1. What are the sources of change causing this pressure for organisational
2. Why is it that so many organisational change initiatives in fact fail?
3. What can be done by management to ensure business responds to the
pressure for organisational change?
Page 1 of 5
RECOMMENDED READING LIST
The following resources will assist you in your preliminary understanding of and
research for the topic.
Students are NOT restricted to these resources, and can use their own independent
research to find relevant information. Students are however, expected to read and
utilise intext, at least 3 of the below resources. Remember that for a pass grade,
students are expected to utilise at least 6 resources overall.
Appelbaum, S.H., Cameron, A., Ensink, F., Hazarika, J., Attir, R., Ezzedine, R. and Shekhar,
V., 2017. Factors that impact the success of an organizational change: a case study
analysis. Industrial and Commercial Training, 49(5), pp.213-230.
Burnes, B. 2011. Introduction: Why Does Change Fail, and What Can We Do About
It?, Journal of Change Management, 11(4), 445-450,
By, TR 2005. Organisational Change Management: A Critical Review. Journal of Change
Management, 5(4), pp 369 – 380
Kogetsidis, H., 2012. Critical systems thinking: A creative approach to organizational
change. Journal of Transnational Management, 17(3), pp.189-204.
Lawrence, P., 2015. Leading change–Insights into how leaders actually approach the
challenge of complexity. Journal of Change Management, 15(3), pp.231-252.
Specht, J., Kuonath, A., Pachler, D., Weisweiler, S. and Frey, D., 2018. How Change Agents’
Motivation Facilitates Organizational Change: Pathways Through Meaning and
Organizational Identification. Journal of Change Management, 18(3), pp.198-217.
Svendsen, M. and Joensson, T.S., 2016. Transformational leadership and change related
voice behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 37(3), pp.357-368.
Page 2 of 5
HOW TO PRESENT YOUR ASSIGNMENT
A sample essay (on a different topic) and the marking criteria rubric have also been placed in
iLearn (Assessment Section).
The length of the essay, including citations, but excluding the reference list, is 1,200 words.
Include the word count at the end of the essay, and before the reference list. Turnitin similarly
should be 5% or lower.
Use 1.5 line spacing, 2.5 cm margins on top, bottom and on each side, Times New Roman
font size 12. You are required to use the Harvard (AGPS) Referencing style throughout your
All essays must cite, in total, a minimum of six (6) academic/scholarly and peer reviewed
articles. This includes three (3) of the recommended articles featured above.
Do not use colour printing or formatting templates when submitting your report. Do not
include an executive summary, content section, abstract, footnotes or endnotes. Do not use
headings and subheadings.
WRITING STYLE: The essay should be written in a formal and academic style. The essay
will be evaluated for discriminatory language, clarity of expression and overall presentation.
Do not use bullet points, and casual language or bracketed comments. Do not use headings
and subheadings, as they reduce the integration and flow of your essay.
Your essay must be fully and appropriately referenced, using Harvard (AGPS) intext
citations. Substantial marks will be deducted for inadequate, or incorrect, referencing. Aim
for, at least, two (2) in-text citations per 100 words.
This assessment must be submitted via Turnitin in iLearn. Hard copies will not be accepted
Guidance on how to submit a Turnitin assignment may be accessed from
If you cannot access or view your submission via Turnitin in iLearn, you have not correctly
submitted your work and will need to do so prior to the due date. (If you require assistance
submitting through Turnitin, you may lodge a OneHelp Ticket or refer to the IT help page.)
You may make several submissions via Turnitin to check your work for plagiarism and make
adjustments accordingly up until the due date. If you submit again after the due date your
submission will be counted as a late submission and penalties will apply (see below).
Please note that for a first time submission the similarity report will be available immediately
but for any subsequent submissions it will take 24 hours for the similarity report to be
generated in Turnitin.
Please note that it is your responsibility to:
allow sufficient time for submission of your work and any uploading of
documents so try to avoid submitting your work just prior to the deadline.
ensure that you make the correct submission and that your document can be
viewed in Turnitin.
Page 3 of 5
Please also note that technical issues such as an internet outage or computer failure
are not considered grounds for special consideration. For further details please check
the Special Consideration Policy.
Late submissions are possible and will be penalised at 20% per day up to 4 days (weekend
inclusive). If a student submits an assessment task 5 or more days a after the due date
without grounds for special consideration (See Special Consideration Policy) record or
submission will be made but the student will receive zero marks for the assessment task.
RETENTION OF RECORDS
Student are required to keep a copy of all items submitted or completed for the purpose of
assessment or evaluation until the end of the grade appeal period.
Feedback will be provided in Turnitin via iLearn before Week 6. Marks will be available in
Using the work or ideas of another person, whether intentionally or not, and presenting them
as your own without clear acknowledgement of the source is called Plagiarism.
Macquarie University promotes awareness of information ethics through its Academic
Integrity Policy. This means that:
all academic work claimed as original must be the work of the person making the
all academic collaborations of any kind must be acknowledged
academic work must not be falsified in any way
when the ideas of others are used, these ideas must be acknowledged appropriately.
All breaches of the Academic Integrity Policy are serious and penalties apply. Students
should be aware that they may fail an assessment task, a unit or even be excluded from the
University for breaching the Academic Integrity Policy.
EXPECTATIONS OF STUDENTS
Students are responsible for their learning and are expected to:
• actively engage with assessment tasks, including carefully reading the guidance
provided, understanding criteria, spending sufficient time on the task and submitting
work on time;
• Read, reflect and act on feedback provided;
• Actively engage in activities designed to develop assessment literacy, including taking
the initiative where appropriate (e.g. seeking clarification or advice, negotiating
learning contracts, developing grading criteria and rubrics);
• Provide constructive feedback on assessment processes and tasks through student
feedback mechanisms (e.g. student surveys, suggestions for future offerings, student
representation on committees);
• Ensure that their work is their own; and
• Be familiar with University policy and faculty procedures and act in accordance with
those policy and procedures.
Page 4 of 5
Please review the marking rubric in iLearn. The marking criteria are:
1. Depth of knowledge and development of a consistent, clear and well-supported answer
to the question.
2. Overall level and quality of synthesis, analysis, critical thinking, support and
substantiation, in terms of key themes, arguments and issues raised in the question.
3. Quality of academic research undertaken, as per:
a. Appropriate number of relevant academic references sourced from peer reviewed
national and international journals. All essays must cite at least six (6) academic
sources for a pass grade.
b. Degree of relevance of sources to the arguments featured in your essay.
c. Employment of correct Harvard (AGPS) Referencing style.
4. Use of appropriate structure, as discussed above.
5. Clarity of expression, grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure and
terminology employed as per management and business glossaries covered in class.
6. Overall essay layout and presentation.
Page 5 of 5
The sample essay below follows many (although not all) of the conventions of a typical
management essay. The introduction outlines the overall topic and then narrows its focus to
the specific aspect of that topic that will be discussed in the essay. However, the
introduction doesn’t give a thesis statement (which explains the authors’ main argument)
or an outline of the structure of the essay. It is a good idea to include both of these things,
although as this essay shows, it is not compulsory.
The main body has a clear and logical structure, with clear topic sentences guiding the
reader through the overall argument by making it clear what the main idea of each
paragraph is. The main body of each paragraph uses in-text citations to provide evidence
and examples that help expand on the idea listed in the topic sentence.
Organizations across the globe respond differently to
complications that they face in the modern world. Financial
pressure and economic downturns force firms to apply various
strategies in order to improve organizational performance. Luan,
Tien and Chi (2013) state that downsizing is considered to be a
prevailing strategy to improve performance and effectiveness of
an organization. Downsizing is defined as a conscious systematic
reduction of the number of employees through a deliberately
instituted set of actions by which firms aim to achieve specific
objectives (Rai & Lakshman, 2014). Even though such a tool as
downsizing is used in order to improve the company, it does not
signify that only organizations experiencing hardships downsize, in
fact, growing organizations are just as liable to undertake
downsizing (Trevor & Nyberg, 2008). Williams, Khan and Naumann
(2011) claim that the majority of Fortune 500 companies have
downsized at least once since 1990 and most of these companies
have repeatedly conducted downsizing.
The first two sentences discuss
the broad context of how
companies respond to financial
Firms implement such a business tool as downsizing widely in their
practices due to various reasons. Firstly, companies undertake
downsizing primarily as a cost cutting measure in order to increase
profitability, remain competitive in the global marketplace, adapt
to the changing environment or even in some cases to survive
(Cascio, 1993, as cited in Trevor & Nyberg, 2008; ArmstrongStassen, Reavley & Ghanam, 2005). Moreover, Luan et al. (2013)
state that downsizing is considered to be a useful tool to reduce
excessive bureaucracy, which assists in cutting organizational costs
and increasing efficiency and is especially effective during an
economic downturn. Furthermore, innovations and technological
advancement force organizations to downsize due to the fact that
they result in increasing productivity and decreasing the number
of workers required (Williams et al., 2011). Hence, downsizing is a
widely used practical tool that can assist an organization in
tackling financial and performance problems in both emerging and
developed economies (Munoz-Bullon & Sanchez-Bueno, 2011, as
cited in Luan et al., 2013).
The topic sentence explains
that the purpose of this
paragraph is to list different
reasons why companies
The next two sentences narrow
the focus as they introduce and
define the specific topic of the
The last two sentences explain
why this topic is important by
explaining how common it is
The next three sentences each
list different reasons why
companies choose to downsize.
Each reason is taken from a
different source, which is
indicated by the in-text citation.
The final sentence summarises
the main purpose of
Downsizing is a controversial issue that has a tremendous effect
within the workplace. Due to its complexity downsizing has various
impacts on organizations in both short and long runs. A survey held
by Wyatt Associates indicated that a sufficient amount of firms that
had downsized in a 5 year time period had reduced costs and
bureaucracy and increased profits and productivity, however other
studies such as surveys held by Society for Human Resource
Management and Mabert and Schmenner’s study indicated that
approximately half of organizations that had undertaken downsizing
suffered from a decline in productivity (Appelbaum, Everard &
Hung, 1999). In addition to that, Trevor and Nyberg (2008) claim
that downsizing organizations do not manage to reduce expenses by
as much as they desire, whereas in some cases there is an increase
in costs due to downsizing. Trevor and Nyberg (2008) also claim that
financial performance of the organizations that implement
downsizing continues to lag after downsizing efforts are undertaken
and stock value of the organization generally decreases for two
years following downsizing. Furthermore, Nixon, Hitt, Lee and Jeong
(2004) state that, even though organizations may manage to reduce
their costs in the short run due to downsizing, they also lose
valuable resources, notably human capital which has a crucial effect
on organizational performance in the long run. Thus, when massive
layoffs are implemented without thorough planning, especially in
managerial and professional ranks, firms lose unique knowledge,
which is critical for attaining competitive advantage in the long run
(Nixon et al., 2004).
Layoffs and alternative methods of downsizing have a massive
impact not only on organization as a whole but also on all
individuals involved in the process, especially on victims and
survivors. While victims (i.e. people who lose their positions) might
appear to be more affected by layoffs, in fact, it is survivors (i.e.
people who remain) who experience more negative effects (Maertz,
Wiley, Lerouge & Campion, 2010). Luan et al. (2013) claim that
immediate negative survivor outcomes of downsizing are distrust,
loss of morale and decrease in productivity, besides of that
employees tend to become narrow-minded, self-centered and risk
averse. In addition to that, Van Dierendock and Jacobs (2012) state
that organizations that downsize experience lowered organizational
commitment among survivors, which has a tremendous effect on
the organizational performance in the long run. Thus, considering all
the negative employee-related outcomes of downsizing,
organizations that undertake downsizing should pay special
attention to their employees.
This topic sentence explains
that the main idea of this
paragraph is that downsizing is
Whereas the previous
paragraph listed some benefits
of downsizing, this paragraph
develops the overall argument
by introducing the idea that not
everyone thinks that
downsizing is effective.
The rest of the paragraph
explains why it is considered
controversial, using a variety of
different sources to explain
some of the criticisms of
The topic sentence explains
that the main idea is the effect
of downsizing on staff.
Again, we can see how the
argument is developing in this
essay, as the author narrows
the focus. Whereas the
previous paragraph focused on
negative effects of downsizing
on the company, this paragraph
examines negative effects of
downsizing on staff members.
In the final sentence, the
author gives his/her opinion by
making a recommendation
based on the information given
previously in the paragraph.
Success of downsizing is impacted by various factors and can be
measured differently. The most significant factor in defining the
success of downsizing is considered to be employees’ perception of
downsizing fairness, due to its relation with morale, trust and
productivity of employees (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007; Van
Dierendonck & Jacobs, 2012; Maertz et al., 2010; Rai & Lakshman,
2014; Trevor & Nyberg, 2008). Iverson and Zatzick (2007) state that
employees who consider downsizing to be unfair tend to suffer
more from stress and job dissatisfaction, which results in inability to
work efficiently. Moreover, the harshness of the undertaken
downsizing strategy has a vital impact on employees and their short
and long run productivity (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007). Organizations
that implement less harsh downsizing strategies such as voluntary
layoffs and alternative downsizing strategies (e.g. redeployment)
tend to lose less productivity in the long run comparing to
organizations that implement harsher strategies such as compulsory
layoffs (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007). Furthermore, organizational
culture has a significant impact on the survivors’ commitment, due
to the fact that survivor reactions to layoffs are more positive in
organizations with stronger work culture (Rai & Lakshman, 2014).
The topic sentence tells us that
the argument is now moving to
how the success of downsizing
can be measured.
Nowadays organizations still do not clearly perceive which is the
most efficient managerial strategy and specifically whether
downsizing is an efficient solution to performance problems.
However, various studies (Maertz et al., 2010; Nixon et al., 2004;
Williams et al., 2011) claim that even though downsizing may solve
short run problems, it has a negative impact on organizational
performance in the long run, thus such a business tool as
downsizing should be avoided if it is possible. Although downsizing
is generally considered to be a strategy that should be avoided,
there are some factors that lead to reduction of negative impacts of
downsizing on organizational performance. Van Dierendonck and
Jacobs (2007) claim that organizations that undertake downsizing
should pay special attention to survivors’ perception of downsizing
fairness, due to its strong correlation with employees’
organizational commitment. Another factor that should be
considered is the harshness of the downsizing strategy, as there is
positive correlation between downsizing harshness level and
reduction of organizational efficiency (Iverson & Zatzick, 2007).
The first two sentences of the
final main body paragraph are
moving the reader towards
understanding the author’s
overall position (or thesis). The
first sentence summarises how
complex the issue is.
In conclusion, downsizing is considered to be a very controversial
managerial strategy that should be avoided if it is possible. If it is
not possible to avoid this measure, downsizing should be
thoroughly planned and implemented in the least harsh manner and
with special attention to such details as survivors’ perception of
downsizing fairness and organizational work culture.
The conclusion is very short but
makes clear the author’s
opinion) on the topic.
The second sentence explains
that employee perception is
the best measure of …
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