APA Reflective Paper 1 Twelve Angry MenTwelve Angry Men is a powerful look back at the use of archetypes for the audience to label people.Choose one of the two(2) academic articles in the COURSE FILES (attached) related to the movie and seek a level of deep thinking. How does your own subjective approach to others create preconceived stereotypes?Dare to ask a few deep thinking questions, reflect and discuss. Add at least 2 in-text citations from the one chosen article.The length of this paper should be between 450 – 550 words. DO NOT RETELL THE STORYNote- the APA Reference format is the name of the file.Evirgen, B. (2009). 12 Angry Men as a Teaching Tool in Organizational Behavior. Journal Of Academic Studies, 11(41), 175.RubricGrading Rubric APA EssaysGrading Rubric APA EssaysCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDescription of criterion25.0 ptsFull MarksOragnization0.0 ptsNo Marks25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDeep Thought & Use of ReadingsDeep Thought & Use of Reading Assignments per specific reflection and application of theories presented in readings and in-class lectures, class discussions and personal reflections.25.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGrammarGrammar and Writing Skills ETS Rater will also be used to review and provide suggested revisions for future assignments.25.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA FormatBasic APA Essay Format Title Page with name, assignment, course, FIU, date No Abstract is needed In-text citations must be used to support the written paper. Minimum of 3 in-text citations and one (1) properly cited APA Reference per essay.25.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks25.0 ptsTotal Points: 100.0
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RIVISTA INTERNAZIONALE DI FILOSOFIA E PSICOLOGIA
DOI: 10.4453/rifp.2015.0052
ISSN 2039-4667; E-ISSN 2239-2629
Vol. 6 (2015), n. 3, pp. 528-537
Temi ed eventi
“12 Angry Men”. The Group and the Individual:
From Objectiveness to Subjectiveness
Eugenio Torre1,2, Carla Gramaglia1, Amalia Jona3 & Patrizia Zeppegno1,3
Ricevuto: 3 ottobre 2014; accettato: 28 aprile 2015
█ Abstract Screened fiction stirs people’s psyches through emotions, which refer to a virtual world and
therefore have the potential to help the individual grow in self-awareness while feeling relatively “safe”.
An innovative method to work on movies for education and training purposes was developed by Eugenio
Torre, and is proposed here for the film 12 Angry Men. This movie may be used in training settings focused on helping relationships to reflect upon the meaning of being an individual in a group, being a
group, responsibility and choice. A key to the reading of the movie is proposed at two different but complementary levels. From an “extra-psychical” standpoint, movie characters may represent a working
group of 12 very different people sharing a task, while from an “intra-psychical” one, each character may
represent an embodiment or symbol of an individual’s part and/or complex. According to the movie suggestion, we describe a path from objectiveness to subjectiveness and the final accomplishment of an ethical choice.
KEYWORDS: Cinema; Collectivism; Group Psychotherapy; Training; Ethical Choice.
█ Riassunto “La parola ai giurati”. Il gruppo e l’individuo: dall’oggettività alla soggettività – Il cinema sollecita la psiche delle persone attraverso le emozioni, che, essendo riferite ad un mondo virtuale, hanno la
potenzialità di favorire la crescita dell’auto-consapevolezza dell’individuo, facendolo sentire relativamente
“al sicuro”. Eugenio Torre ha sviluppato un metodo innovativo che impiega i film per la formazione e
l’educazione, metodo che qui viene proposto per il film La Parola i Giurati. Questo film può essere utilizzato per la formazione alla relazione di aiuto, per riflettere sul significato di essere un individuo in un
gruppo, di essere un gruppo, della responsabilità e della scelta. Vengono proposte due chiavi di lettura
complementari del film. Da un punto di vista “extra-psichico”, i personaggi del film possono rappresentare un gruppo di 12 persone molto diverse tra loro, che si trovano a condividere un compito; da un punto
di vista “intra-psichico”, ogni personaggio può rappresentare una personificazione o simbolo di una parte
e/o di un complesso dell’individuo stesso. Sulla base delle suggestioni offerte dal film, descriviamo un percorso che va dall’oggettività alla soggettività, e il raggiungimento, infine, di una scelta etica.
PAROLE CHIAVE: Cinema; Collettivo; Psicoterapia di Gruppo; Formazione; Scelta Etica.
1
Istituto di Psichiatria, Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via
Solaroli, 17 – 28100 Novara (I)
2
Associazione REI Esistenza e Inviduazione, via Martiri della Libertà, 2 – 10131 Torino (I)
3
Istituto di Psichiatria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Maggiore della Carità, via Solaroli, 17 – 28100
Novara (I)
E-mail: eugenio.torre@alice.it; carla.gramaglia@gmail.com; candel.jona@libero.it;
patrizia.zeppegno@med.uniupo.it ( )
Creative Commons – Attribuzione – 4.0 Internazionale
12 Angry Men
█ Background
Arts-based therapy can be used as an alternative means of expression and exploration of feelings, to enhance personal growth
and change. For instance, “cinematherapy”1
has been described as a «therapeutic technique that involves having the therapist select commercial films for the client to view
alone or with specified others», with the aim
of having «a direct therapeutic effect», being «a stimulus for further interventions
within a session»2 or being a metaphorical
intervention.3
It is through emotion and its equilibriumdisturbing power that screened fiction stirs
people’s psyches.4 Watching a movie projects
the viewer into a condition where reality is
temporarily suspended and identification
with the movie characters can happen,5 thus
having an impact on the individual which is
more on an emotional level than an intellectual one.6 Indeed, the outstanding trait of the
emotions aroused by cinema is that they refer
to a virtual world and so have the potential to
help the individual grow in self-awareness
while feeling relatively “safe”.7
These features of cinema and movies may
therefore be helpful from a therapeutic point
of view, as described in the theory and practice of cinematherapy; but we believe that
they can be precious, as well, as far as education and training are concerned. In this paper
our aim is to describe the use of movies in
education and training focused on helping
relationships; we will describe the example of
the reflections raised by the movie 12 Angry
Men (directed by Sidney Lumet, written by
Reginald Rose).
This can be suggested for viewing in
training settings in order to reflect upon relationships, the meaning of being an individual
in a group, being a group, responsibility and
choice, and it may be useful as well in all
those settings where a reflection on group
dynamics is warranted (for instance, supervision or consultancy to a team or group of coworkers, etc…).
529
█ An innovative approach to the use of
movies in education and training for helping relationships
█ A premise
Training and education for helping relationships require specific teaching/learning
approaches. The communication and acquisition of emotional experience need to follow
a pathway which is different from the one
typical for communication and acquisition of
technical skills. Bion argued that, in contrast
to technical issues, which are easy to share
and teach, only limited methods exist to
communicate emotional experiences, and the
existing ones have a limited range of influence. In the field of emotional experience,
according to Bion, a mimetic approach is not
only worthless, but it is even dangerous because it might resemble a spurious growth
and education.8
In the attempt to find a possible answer to
the unresolved question raised by Bion, Eugenio Torre developed a method which,
through art, proposes a pathway for teaching
and educating about relationships.9 This approach integrates theoretical and technical
issues together with the experience of working in a group (which is usually a training
group) and specifically uses dynamic images
(full length movies or scenes) from cinematic
fiction as educational incitements.
█ Archetypes
According to the aim, which is to teach
and to educate about relationships, the focus
is on movies, characters and scenes crossreferring to archetypes which might constellate the problems related to helping relationships (for instance, The Shadow, The Hero,
The Wounded Healer, see Table 1 for details).
We should remember that Jung proposed
two approaches to the understanding of archetypes, the phenomenological and the
mythological ones. The latter, which was later developed by Neumann and Hillman, is
530
the one we use in our approach to movies.
We propose a work on images, together with
what they represent and call to mind, which
cross-refer to archetypal situations in the
psychological dimension of relationships.
As Hillman suggests, psychical contents
may be activated in interpersonal situations
with a strong affective content, as helping relationships may be; someone who is involved
in the relationship may bring archetypes into
the relationship itself, while being more or
less conscious of that.10 Archetypal images
may impact relationships at several levels:
the individual; the individual and others; the
collective unconscious. The mythological approach offers a useful trace to approach the
Torre, Gramaglia, Jona & Zeppegno
understanding and interpretation of the
complex “world” of relationships. Moreover,
a connection exists between archetypal experience and learning (both from a cognitive
and an emotional standpoint), and the myth
which brings the archetypal polarities back
together allows us to understand and eventually avoid unilaterality.111213
█ The method
According to Torre’s approach, full-length
movies or scenes and characters from movies
are discussed and elaborated in a group context, through a group work which may include
the following: choice of movie scenes experi-
Table 1
Archetype
In Jungian psychology, these are universal and archaic patterns and images deriving from the collective
unconscious, which can be detected indirectly from images, dreams, behaviours, art and mythology. Archetypes are inherited as potentials which are actualized when they enter consciousness, and, only after
that, they can be transformed. Archetypes have polarities (for instance, doctor/patient, parent/child…),
and both polarities can be found in each of us. When one of these is activated in the outer world, the other
is activated in the inner one. When one becomes too consciously identified with one polarity, he/she is
likely to deny the other one and to project it onto Others.
Complex
According to Jung’s theory, which he originally called “Complex psychology”, a “complex” is a “node” of
unconscious feelings and beliefs which can be detected in an indirect way (for instance, through puzzling
behaviours, which are difficult to understand from a rational viewpoint). Complexes may be either positive or negative, and they can be conscious, partly conscious or unconscious. What lies at the core of each
complex is a universal pattern of experience or archetype.
The Wounded Healer
It is intuitive that the wounded healer archetype has to do with helping relationships. Those who take care
of others cannot do so disregarding their own wounds, because, as Chiron’s myth teaches us, it is in this
wound that lies the possibility of healing others. See Guggenbuhl-Craig for a detailed discussion on this
point.12
The Shadow
The Shadow can emerge in helping relationships, for instance when the relationship is dominated by the
wish to gain control on the other person or to have him/her do what the caregiver believes is better. We
should remember what Jung wrote about love: «Where love rules, there is no will to power, and where
power predominates, love is lacking. The one is the shadow of the other».13
The Hero
The Hero shows up in helping relationships, for instance, when one person, with his armour and white
cloak, decides to “save” another, without really caring about his protégé’s wishes and needs.
12 Angry Men
enced as more emotionally involving and
closely related to the problem the group is
dealing with; their representation through
dramatization, psychodrama and role play
with role reversal; and sharing of group members’ experiences. The emotional experience
gets structured by working through the movie
characters, and reflection on and processing of
the images emerging from the group work,
while the group leader supports and facilitates
the integration of contents.
When we talk about psychodrama techniques, we do not mean that movies should
be used as a basis for actual psychodrama
sessions but rather that some psychodrama
techniques have been found to be a helpful
tool in the context of the method developed
by Eugenio Torre (indeed, we should always
keep in mind that this approach has been
conceived for the training and education of
people involved in helping relationships and
that people working on movies according to
the method we are describing are not doing
so within an actual psychotherapy group).
Used in the context we are describing,
these psychodrama techniques may be, but
are not necessarily, used to work on specific
scenes or characters. For instance, participants are invited to play a scene identified by
the group as particularly meaningful; the
scene can be played more than once and roles
may be reversed; eventually, the group is encouraged to discuss the feelings aroused either by playing or watching the scene. This
allows the emotional impact of fiction to be
further strengthened.
Moreover, it should be underscored that
the movie is not meant to be like a sort of
projective test; it is something different. Specifically, having already seen the movie or
having some members of the group who have
seen it while others have not, are not problems per se, and do not compromise the efficacy and effectiveness of the approach we are
describing. Every time we watch a movie (as
every time we read a book or recall a
memory), it “tastes” and means something
different to us according to our current con-
531
dition and experience, and we may notice,
appreciate, dislike or seize different issues
than we did in previous visions, accordingly.
Anyway, whatever the condition of the
watcher with respect to the movie (having
already seen it/having not), all that emerges
from the work on the movie is significant for
that individual in that specific moment of
his/her life. In our experience we have never
found this situation either to hinder the work
on movies or to be used as a resistance to
avoid talking about one’s point of view; if anything, it makes the process more complex, but
in no way more complicated. Last, having seen
a movie such as the one we are describing,
which has a specific focus on prejudice, may
allow the viewer to experience exactly what is
described by the movie, i.e. that prejudice
should be dropped in order to achieve a larger-scale vision of what we are currently facing.
█ Two ways of “reading” the movie
Movies or movie scenes offer multifaceted possibilities for confrontation and
mirroring with the relation between the individual and his/her own profession, from several perspectives: of the individual, of the
group with its dynamics and relationships, of
motivation, destiny and chronicity.14 Also,
«the psyche speaks in metaphors, in analogues, in images, that’s its primary language» as Hillman wrote,15 and psyche can
deal with the world or with itself and its own
functioning. Images from a movie, like a
dream or a fantasy, can be read at two different levels, which somehow complete each
other: the “outer world” (“extra-psychical”)
and the “inner world” (“intra-psychical”).
In the movie 12 Angry Men, 12 men who
do not know each other find themselves
locked into a jury room. According to what
may be called an “extra-psychical” or “objective” standpoint, the characters may represent a working group, a microcosm consisting of 12 very different people, who did not
choose to be together but nonetheless share a
task they have to accomplish.
532
According to an “intra-psychical” standpoint, the same movie can be read and interpreted subjectively. As in a dream, each character represents an embodiment or symbol of
an individual’s part and/or complex. The
dream is a theatre and the dreamer is scene,
actor, promoter, director, author, public and
critic at the same time.16
The group may focus either on the first or
the second perspective, i.e. the group may
work and reflect on the group dynamics
which are explicitly depicted in the movie or
instead reflect on how one’s own inner parts
interact when a personal decision has to be
taken. Since these are just two ways of approaching the same “stimulus”, there is no
need to choose between the two; they are not
mutually exclusive.
█ The movie, in short
The defendant is an 18-year-old black boy
from the slums, charged with first degree
murder for killing his father. The 12 jurymen
must reach a unanimous verdict, coming to a
decision of whether a reasonable doubt remains or not.
At the beginning, “not guilty” is suggested
only by the architect played by Henry Fonda,
who is not sure of the defendant’s innocence
but nonetheless believes that his case deserves to be discussed and should not be dismissed with shallowness. Discussion begins
and unfolds; every juryman’s character and
personal history play a meaningful role in
how they see and judge the case. Everyone is
charged with thinking things over and taking
his duty as a juryman seriously; in the end, a
very different verdict is returned.
█ At the beginning: Collectivism
At the beginning, 11 out of the 12 people
of the jury agree on a guilty judgement for the
defendant. There is a clear lack of ethical behaviour. Their agreement is fictitious – there
is nothing to agree upon when dialogue and
confrontation are lacking. All the jurymen but
Torre, Gramaglia, Jona & Zeppegno
one (the architect) clearly intend to get out of
the duty they have been called to accomplish.
They are apparently disinterested, irrespective
of their responsibility, which is initially trivialized: some of them have “more important”
things to do (for example, seeing a ballgame),
and all but one believe there is nothing to discuss, because everything already stands absolutely plain and unequivocal.
The jurymen’s haste to return a verdict
has to do neither with their wish to perform
well, nor with their interest in the victim, the
defendant and justice. Instead, it has to do
with the fact that the sooner they agree upon
the verdict, the sooner they can go elsewhere.
Consequently, doubt is excluded a priori.
The reality of the facts, the explanations and
interpretations they heard in the courtroom,
seem to be and must be persuasive; everything matches their prejudice. There is no
attempt to try to consider the facts from another standpoint. Because (almost) everybody is of the same mind, there is nothing
the jurymen can or should talk about.
Dialogue, debate and discussion are lacking. In such a condition, it requires courage to
take a different stand and legitimate one’s
own role. This early situation does not represent a real agreement. It is instead a state of
collectivism, no place for individual differentiation. This archaic identity is a feature of the
primitive mind-set and mirrors the original
condition of the individual, unaware of separation and differentiation between self and
other-than-self, between subject and object.
Identity consists in an unconscious equality
with objects, and this conception has not even
ever entered the domain of conscience.
█ Prejudice
The judgment of absolute guilt formulated
by the jury seems at least in part based on the
naïve prejudice that the evidence presented by
the prosecuting attorney is inherently true and
that this truth is plain and obvious to everybody in the same way. The movie-watcher
now faces several prejudices: that the same
12 Angry Men
things are clear and obvious to everyone; that
all individuals share the same patterns of
thought and functioning; that what seems true
to somebody should correspond to the truth
for everybody. From a certain point of view
these prejudices may seem reassuring: no
place for doubt, difference, conflict, and more
importantly, for the burden of responsibility.
But, unfortunately, this means there is not
even place for life and growth.
“It’s like that, everybody heard it” the
character played by Lee J. Cobb (the disappointed father) shouts, exasperated. Nothing
is called into question; the boy’s guilt seems
established.
█ Projections
Here we refer to the psychological mechanism of projection, tout court, i.e. to the
misattribution of a person’s undesired
thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another
person, usually because those thoughts, feelings or impulses are unacceptable for the person to express or make him/her feel bad and
uncomfortable for having them.17
All jurymen but one seem to believe in an
absolute, ontic truth: the evidence is true because it is the evidence; it is true as such.
There is no awareness that this so called
“truth” is in the eyes of those who want to see
it, and that every cognitive act is inevitably
influenced by the knowing subject, as Heisenberg’s uncertainty pri …
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