2 linguistic problem set . it is about natural classes of english sounds, types of phonological rules, minimal pair of allophones of separate phonemes
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Linguis 3: Introduction to Linguistics
Winter 2019
Problem Set 1: Articulatory Phonetics
Due 1/18/2019. 100 points possible
1. (LF 2.6) Write the three-part articulatory descriptions for the consonant sounds
represented by the following symbols. The first one is given as an example.
(2 points each)
Example: [j]: voiced palatal glide
a. [f]
b. [z]
c. [n]
d. [ŋ]
e. [ʃ]
f. [ɹ]
g. [ʒ]
h. [ʧ]
i. [ɡ]
j. [ʔ]
2. (LF 2.12) Write the phonetic symbol representing each of the following sounds
(don’t forget to use square brackets). The first one is given as an example:
(2 points each)
Example: high back lax rounded vowel: [ʊ]
a. high front tense unrounded vowel
b. mid back lax rounded vowel
c. mid front lax unrounded vowel
d. low back lax unrounded vowel
3. (LF 2.16) Give the conventional spelling for the following phonetically transcribed
words. (Note that some may have more than one possible spelling.) The first one
(a) is given as an example.
(2 points each)
a. [peɪn] pain
b. [kɑnʃəs]
c. [θɑʊzn̩d]
d. [ɹɑt]
e. [ʤɔ]
f. [ækʃn̩]
g. [bjuɾi]
h. [ʃuleɪs]
i. [kloʊð]
j. [sɹ̩ veɪ]
k. [lʊk]
l. [bæŋ]
m. [eɪʒə]
n. [bɑks]
4. (LF 2.17) Give the phonetic transcription for the following conventionally spelled
words. The first one (a) is given as an example.
(2 points each)
a. touch [tᴧʧ]
b. flood
c. stood
d. breathe
e. breath
f. punched
g. lather
h. monkey
i. cough
j. raspberry
k. slyly
l. sugar
m. isn’t
n. rhythm
o. union
5. (LF 2.19) Read the phonetically transcribed sentences below and write them out
in ordinary spelling. These transcriptions represent the pronunciation of a
particular speaker on a particular occasion and thus may differ from your own
pronunciation of the same passages in certain minor details, but this should not
cause you any difficulty. These passages are from Woody Allen’s book Without
Feathers. (7 points each)
a. [ðə ɡɹæshɑpɹ̩ pleɪd ɑl sᴧmɹ̩ wɑɪl ði ænt wɹ̩ kt n̩ seɪvd wɛn wɪntɹ̩ keɪm ðə ɡɹæshɑpɹ̩
hæd nᴧθɪŋ bᴧt ði ænt kəmpleɪnd əv ʧɛst peɪnz]
b. [ðə sæfɑɪɹ̩ wᴧz əɹɪʤənəli oʊnd bɑɪ ə sᴧltn̩ hu dɑɪd ᴧndɹ̩ mɪstɪɹiəs sɹ̩ kəmstænsəz wɛn
ə hænd ɹiʧt ɑʊt əv ə boʊl əv sup hi wᴧz itɪŋ n̩ stɹæŋɡlɹ̩ d hɪm]
Linguis 3: Introduction to Linguistics
Winter 2019
Problem Set 2: Phonology
Due 1/28/2019. 100 points possible
1. (LF 3.14) Describe the following natural classes of English sounds. (2 points each)
a. [ f, θ, s, ʃ, h ]
b. [ i, u ]
c. [ p, b ]
d. [ n, ɹ, l ]
2. (LF 3.15) Identify what type(s) of phonological rule(s) applies in each of the
following derivations. (2 points each)
a. little /lɪtl̩/ → [ lɪɾl̩ ]
b. late bell /leɪt bɛl/ → [ leɪp bɛl ]
c. park /pɑɹk/ → [ pʰɑɹk ]
d. lance /læns/ → [ lænts ]
e. it’s her car /ɪts hɹ̩ kɑɹ/ → [ ɪts ɹ̩ kʰɑɹ ]
f. prescription /pɹiskɹɪpʃn̩/ → [ pʰəɹskɹɪpʃn̩ ]
3. (LF 3.25) Standard Spanish is an Indo-European language of the Romance family.
Examine the phones [ d ] and [ ð ]. Determine whether they are allophones of one
phoneme or of separate phonemes. If they are allophones of one phoneme, identify the
type of distribution (complementary distribution or free variation). If they are in
complementary distribution, state a rule that describes the distribution. If [ d ] and [ ð ]
are allophones of separate phonemes, give minimal pairs that prove this. (16 points)
a. [ dɾenar ]
b. [ dentɾo ]
c. [ dia ]
d. [ aðonde ]
e. [ ajuða ]
f. [ iðioma ]
g. [ duða ]
h. [ bendito ]
i. [ laðear ]
j. [ aldea ]
k. [ deðo ]
l. [ toldo ]
‘to drain’
‘within’
‘day’
‘where’
‘help’
‘language’
‘doubt’
‘blessed’
‘to tilt’
‘village’
‘finger’
‘canopy’
4. (LF 3.28) Korean is a “language isolate,” meaning that it is not linguistically related to
other languages. It is spoken in Korea. In the following Korean words, you will find the
sounds [ s ] and [ ʃ ]. Determine whether the sounds [ s ] and [ ʃ ] are allophones of the
same phoneme or separate phonemes. If the sounds are allophones of the same
phoneme, give the conditioning environment for each allophone. (16 points)
a. [ ʃi ]
b. [ miʃin ]
c. [ ʃinmun ]
d. [ tʰaksaŋʃiɡe ]
e. [ ʃilsu ]
f. [ oʃip ]
g. [ paŋʃik ]
h. [ kanʃik ]
i. [ kaʃi ]
j. [ sal ]
k. [ kasu ]
l. [ sanmun ]
m. [ kasəl ]
n. [ miso ]
o. [ susek ]
‘poem’
‘superstition’
‘newspaper’
‘table clock’
‘mistake’
‘fifty’
‘method’
‘snack’
‘thorn’
‘flesh’
‘singer’
‘prose’
‘hypothesis’
‘smile’
‘search’
5. (LF 3.30) Examine the classes of voiced versus voiceless vowels in Totonac, a
Totonacan language spoken in Mexico. Are voiced and voiceless vowels in Totonac in
contrast, in free variation, or in complementary distribution? If the sounds are in
complementary distribution, pick one sound as the basic sound and give the phonetic
contexts for its allophones. (Note that [ ts ] represents a voiceless alveolar affricate, and
[ ɫ ] a velarized [ l ].) (10 points)
a. [ tsapsḁ ]
b. [ tsilinksḁ ]
c. [ kasitti̥ ]
d. [ kuku̥ ]
e. [ ɫkakḁ ]
f. [ miki̥ ]
g. [ snapapḁ ]
h. [ stapu̥ ]
i. [ ʃumpi̥ ]
j. [ taːqhu̥ ]
k. [ tihaʃɫi̥ ]
l. [ tukʃɫi̥ ]
‘he stacks’
‘it resounded’
‘cut it’
‘uncle’
‘peppery’
‘snow’
‘white’
‘beans’
‘porcupine’
‘you plunged’
‘he rested’
‘it broke’
6. (LF 3.34) German is an Indo-European language of the Germanic family, spoken in
Germany. Examine the voiceless velar fricative represented by [ x ] and the voiceless
palatal fricative represented by [ ç ] in the German data below. Are the two sounds in
complementary distribution or are they contrastive? If the sounds are allophones in
complementary distribution, state the phonetic contexts for each allophone. (Remember
that <ː> marks vowel lenɡth, so [ uː ] is a long vowel, not a sequence of two segments.)
(16 points)
a. [ buːx ]
b. [ lɔx ]
c. [ hoːx ]
d. [ flʊxt ]
e. [ ɪç ]
f. [ ɛçt ]
g. [ ʃpreːçə ]
h. [ lɛçəln ]
i. [ riːçən ]
j. [ fɛçtən ]
‘book’
‘hole’
‘high’
‘escape’
‘I’
‘real’’
‘(he/she/it) would speak’
‘to smile’
‘to smell’
‘to fence’
7. (LF 3.37) Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine
the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless
velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a
voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which
are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones. (22 points)
a. [ kano ]
b. [ xano ]
c. [ çino ]
d. [ cino ]
e. [ kali ]
f. [ xali ]
g. [ çeli ]
h. [ ceri ]
i. [ çeri ]
j. [ kori ]
k. [ xori ]
l. [ xrima ]
m. [ krima ]
n. [ xufta ]
o. [ kufeta ]
p. [ çina ]
q. [ cina ]
‘do’
‘lose’
‘pour’
‘move’
‘charms’
‘plight’
‘eel’
‘candle’
‘hand’
‘daughter’
‘dances’
‘money’
‘shame’
‘handful’
‘bonbons’
‘goose’
‘china’

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