1.(03.07 MC)Which of the endocrine glands below are located in the abdomen and are correctly paired with their function? (2 points)Thymus: immune system; hypothalamus: growth and developmentHypothalamus: immune system; thymus: growth and developmentPancreas: blood glucose levels; adrenal: emergency responsePancreas: emergency response; adrenal: blood glucose levels2.(03.02 LC)In a reflex arc, what is the destination of neural impulses beginning in one of the ventral roots of the spinal cord? (2 points)EffectorReceptorGray matterWhite matter3.(03.02 LC)Which of the following is a function of the spinal cord? (2 points)To receive instructions from the brain and provide feedback about body position and balanceTo route instructions from the brain to the appropriate body parts via spinal nervesTo monitor and adjust the composition of bloodTo trigger and mediate emotional responses4.(01.01 MC)Which of the following correctly differentiates how an anatomist versus a physiologist would study the effects of a muscoskeletal disease? (2 points)Anatomist: effect on muscle contraction; Physiologist: effect on tendon thicknessAnatomist: effect on tendon thickness; Physiologist: effect on muscle contractionAnatomist: effect on bone metabolism; Physiologist: effect on bone growthAnatomist: effect on bone growth; Physiologist: effect on bone metabolism5.(01.05 HC)A patient with burns to the skin complains of numbness and difficulty staying warm. Based on this information, diagnose which layers of skin were damaged and the degree of the burns. Explain your diagnoses. (5 points)6.(02.03 MC)The following are required steps in the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction:Nerve impulse reaches the muscle.Action potential travels down T-tubules.Calcium binds to troponin.Tropomyosin moves.What would be the correct order of the steps? (2 points) 4, 3, 2, 11, 2, 3, 43, 1, 2, 43, 2, 1, 47.(01.06 MC)”Osteonecrosis is a disease caused by reduced blood flow to bones in the joints. In people with healthy bones, new bone is always replacing old bone. In osteonecrosis, the lack of blood causes the bone to break down faster than the body can make enough new bone.”Based on this passage and your knowledge of bone, what is one way that reduced blood flow could cause osteonecrosis? (2 points)Inadequate opening within the perforating canalsInadequate opening within the Haversian canalInadequate nutrients delivered to the osteoclastsInadequate nutrients delivered to the osteoblasts8.(03.03 LC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comWhich letter indicates the parietal lobe of the cerebrum? (2 points)ABCD9.(02.02 MC)If a connective tissue disease was adversely affecting the sarcolemma, what symptoms might be presented? (2 points)The patient’s muscles would not be able to receive the nerve stimuli needed for a muscle contraction.The patient’s muscles would not be able to store the calcium ions needed for a muscle contraction.The patient’s muscles would not have the blood supply needed for a muscle contraction.The patient’s muscles would be fragile and unable to stand the force of a muscle contraction.10.(01.06 MC)Which of the following could be caused by depressed osteoblast activity? (2 points)Low blood calcium levels and a lack of bone growthHigh blood calcium levels and excessive bone growthLow blood calcium levels and excessive bone growthHigh blood calcium levels and a lack of bone growth11.(01.02 MC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comThe golfer’s right arm is moving in which anatomical directions in the picture above? (2 points)Lateral and inferiorLateral and superiorProximal and anteriorDistal and anterior12.(03.06 MC)Which of the following shows the correct order in which light information travels through the eye? (2 points)Lens, pupil, retina, optic nervePupil, lens, retina, optic nervePupil, lens, optic nerve, retinaLens, pupil, optic nerve, retina13.(03.01 MC)You smell a rose and smile at its lovely scent. What type of nerve is mostly likely responsible for sending a message about the rose’s scent from your nose to your brain? (2 points)Spinal motorCranial motorSpinal sensoryCranial sensory14.(01.03 MC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comBased on the graph above, which letter indicates the onset of a hematoma at the break site? (2 points)ABCD15.(02.01 LC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comWhich label on the diagram designates the rectus abdominis? (2 points)ABCD16.(03.04 MC)Which of the following correctly describes the series of events occurring during a parasympathetic nervous system response? (2 points)Stimulation of cranial regions; cranial root ganglion; acetylcholine releaseStimulation of cranial regions; cranial root ganglion; norepinephrine releaseStimulation of thoracic or lumbar spinal regions; chain ganglion; acetylcholine releaseStimulation of thoracic or lumbar spinal regions; chain ganglion; norepinephrine release17.(03.01 MC)After narrowly dodging a car accident, your sympathetic nervous system was activated. If you measured your vital signs at this time, which of the following would you observe? (2 points)Your breathing rate decreased.Your blood volume decreased.Your breathing rate increased.Your blood volume increased.18.(01.06 HC)A person has a bone fracture and takes a painkiller that causes blood-vessel constriction. Why might this painkiller actually slow bone healing? Specifically describe how the drug would affect the three stages of bone healing. (5 points)19.(03.07 MC)Which of the following correctly matches examples of endocrine and exocrine glands? (2 points)Exocrine = pancreas; endocrine = sweat glandsExocrine = sweat glands; endocrine = pancreasExocrine = wax gland of ears; endocrine = mucous glandsExocrine = mucous glands; endocrine = wax gland of ears20.(01.02 MC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comWhich of the following precisely describes the cut made through the knee in the image above? (2 points)A transverse cut through the anterior side of the kneeA sagittal cut through the anterior side of the kneeA transverse cut through the posterior side of the kneeA sagittal cut through the posterior side of the knee21.(01.05 LC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comWhich of the following are parts of the axial skeleton? (2 points)Rib cage and vertebral columnVertebral column and pelvic girdleShoulder girdle and pelvic girdleUpper arm and shoulder girdle22.(03.05 MC)If a poison is ingested that prevents the release of acetylcholine, which one of the following would occur at a myoneural junction? (2 points)Sodium and potassium gates on the motor end plate will not close.Sodium and potassium gates on the motor end plate will not open.Sodium and potassium gates on the axon will not close.Sodium and potassium gates on the axon plate will not close.23.(01.04 MC)In the skin, the epidermis can be compared to which of the following? (2 points)A wall that protects a country from invadersA ship that transports cargoA telephone line used to communicate informationA switch that turns a light on24.(01.02 MC)The diaphragm is ___________ to the thoracic cavity and _________ to the pelvic cavity. (2 points)inferior; superiorsuperior; anteriorposterior; inferiorsuperior; inferior25.(01.02 MC)A gross anatomy professor requests that the students cut a transverse section from a specimen and place it on a slide, producing a superior view of the section. In which direction would the students cut the specimen, and how would they position the cut section on the slide? (2 points)Inferior to superior, and place the section left side down on the slideInferior to superior, and place the section right side down on the slideRight to left, and place the section superior side down on the slideRight to left, and place the section inferior side down on the slide26.(01.06 MC)A person develops a disease in which her immune system attacks her own connective tissue. Where would this disease have the greatest impact? (2 points)Tendons and cartilageTendons and the epidermisMuscles and the spinal cordMuscles and bone27.(03.07 MC)A chemical signal that travels through the bloodstream is part of the _____________ system, while a chemical signal released into a synapse by an axon is part of the ____________system. (2 points)exocrine; nervousendocrine; exocrineexocrine; endocrineendocrine; nervous28.(01.03 MC)An anthropologist finds the following at a human burial site: 20 ribs, 24 vertebrae, 2 hyoid bones, and 6 phalanges. What does this evidence suggest about the number of humans buried at this site, and why? (2 points)One human buried here, as humans have 20 ribs per individualOne human buried here, as humans have 24 vertebrae per individualTwo humans buried here, as humans have one hyoid bone per individualTwo humans buried here, as humans have 10 ribs per individual29.(03.05 MC)Drug addiction has reduced the number of receptors in the addict’s neural synapses. How will this affect signal transduction at the synapse? (2 points)Less neurotransmitter will be produced by the presynaptic cell.More neurotransmitter will be produce by the presynaptic cell.More ion channels will open in the postsynaptic cell.Fewer ion channels will open in the postsynaptic cell.30.(01.05 LC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comBased on the image above, which of the following is part of the appendicular skeleton? (2 points)AIGH31.(03.02 LC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.comWhich structure would contain sensory nerve fibers? (2 points)ABCD32.(01.06 MC)Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com”Each long bone has at least two growth plates, also called epiphyseal plates. The growth plate is responsible for adding length to the bone and, therefore, determines the future length and shape of the mature bone.”Based on this description, how will the fracture depicted in the image above affect the bone’s growth? (2 points)Bone growth will decrease.Bone growth will increase.Bone growth will not be affected.Bone growth will not occur.