You’re hired by a restaurant owner to figure out why its sales has been dropping. Identify which research method you are going to use, what kind of data, and how you are going to collect that data. Thoroughly explain step by step. Please use the Powerpoint as the guide for steps.And I will also give you a classmate’s respond to comment (about 50-80 words) after you are finished.
ch_4.pptx

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Chapter Four
Market Research
Marketing: Real People, Real Choices, 8e
Solomon, Marshall, and Stuart
Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Figure 4.3: Steps in the Market
Research Process
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Step 1: Define the Research Problem
• Specify the research objectives/questions
• Identify the consumer population of interest
• Place the problem in an environmental
context
– What factors in the firm’s internal and external
business environment might influence the
situation?
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Step 2: Determine the Research Design
• A research design is a plan that specifies what
information marketers will collect and what
type of study they will do
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Exploratory Research
• Exploratory research is useful for:
– Gaining better understanding of problem
– Identifying new opportunities
• Often qualitative in nature
– Focus groups
– Case studies
– Ethnographies
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Descriptive Research
• Descriptive research
– Systematically investigate marketing problem
– Results expressed in quantitative terms
– Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal
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Causal Research
• Causal research
– Attempts to identify cause-and-effect
Sales of beer and diapers
are correlated, but does
one cause the other?
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Step 3: Choose the Method to
Collect Primary Data
• Primary data collection
falls into two broad
categories
– Survey
– Observation
• Use of new
technologies
– Neuromarketing
– Virtual stores
Sophisticated new technologies such as
virtual stores allow marketers to
recreate shopping experiences on
mobile devices.
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Types of marketing information
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Survey Methods
• Survey methods are used to interview
respondents
– Mail questionnaires
– Telephone interviews
– Face-to-face interviews
– Online questionnaires
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Questionnaire Design
Open-Ended
Question
An interview question that encourages
an answer phrased in the
respondent’s own words.
Closed-Ended
Question
An interview question that asks
the respondent to make a selection
from a limited list of responses.
ScaledResponse
Question
A closed-ended question
designed to measure the intensity
of a respondent’s answer.
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Different types of questions in a sample Wendy’s
survey (Q6-Q9)
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In a typical month, how often do you
shop in department stores?
_____ Never
_____ Occasionally
_____ Sometimes
_____ Often
_____ Regularly
(Incorrect)
In a typical month, how often do you shop in
department stores?
_____ Less than once
_____ 1 or 2 times
_____ 3 or 4 times
_____ More than 4 times
(Correct)
How many gallons of soft drinks did you
consume during the last four weeks?
(Incorrect)
How often do you consume soft drinks in a
typical week?
(Correct)
1.
___ Less than once a week
2.
___ 1 to 3 times per week
3.
___ 4 to 6 times per week
4.
___ 7 or more times per week
Balanced and Unbalanced
Scales
Surfing the Internet is
____ Extremely Good
____ Very Good
____ Good
____ Somewhat Good
____ Bad
____ Very Bad
Observational Methods
• Data collection approach in
which researcher records
consumer behaviors, often
without their knowledge
– Direct observation
– Unobtrusive measures (e.g.
go through trash)
– Mechanical systems
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Data and Measurement Quality Issues
• Quality of market research insights based on
“garbage in, garbage out!”
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Step 4: Design the Sample
• Probability vs. non-probability samples
– Is personal judgment used in selecting
respondents?
– Do members of target population have an equal
chance of being included in sample?
• Types of nonprobability sampling
– Convenience sampling
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Step 5: Collect the Data
• The quality of research
conclusions is only as good
as the data used to
generate them
• Challenges to gathering
data in foreign countries
– Cultural issues
– Language issues
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Step 6: Analyze and Interpret the Data
• Data must be analyzed and interpreted to be
meaningful!
• Tabulation
– Arranging data in a table or other summary form
to get a broad picture of overall response
• Cross-tabulation
– Exploring data by sub-groups in order to see how
results vary across categories
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Table 4.4: Examples of Data Tabulation
and Cross-Tabulation Tables
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Step 7: Prepare the Research Report
• Research reports typically include the
following sections:
– Executive summary
– Description of research methods
– Discussion of study results
– Limitations of study
– Conclusions and recommendations
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