Answers must be numbered, and be a total of 1000 words. Must also include 3 sources and have in text citations, with APA formatting. 1. What are five practices of effective leaders? Describe each2. Describe four leadership styles within the situational leadership mode. Provide an example of each.3. How do most effective leaders establish credibility?4. What are four components of effective persuasion? Create a hypothetical case study, or possibly a situation you have actually experienced, where a team leader was trying to get members more committed to a team. Discuss the effectiveness of their techniques.5. Discuss the differences between transactional leadership and transformational leadership. What are the outcomes of each?
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C H A P T E R
4
Leadership
S
T
O
Team leadership is the practice of enlisting
and overseeing others in the pursuit of shared
V seeks to inspire others to the highest levels of
goals. In contrast to management, leadership
individual, team, and organizational performance.
Whereas managers focus on planning,
E
organizing, and controlling, leadership involves vision, networking, and consensusR will possess good management skills, the conbuilding (Kotter, 1998). While good leaders
verse is not always true. Leaders must, be able to foster communication, cohesion, and
commitment within their teams. After looking at a brief overview of management trends
in organizations, we will survey the major theories of leadership, discuss the five practices
of exemplary leaders, and describe how
C leaders can influence and persuade others. We
conclude with specific strategies for conducting effective meetings.
A
R
CASE 4.1: COGENT
O HEALTHCARE
L
Brentwood, Tennessee, is home to a health care company that specializes in hospital medicine, an emerging spe-
cialty with an impressive year-over-year increase in demand. This company has experienced 24% compounded
annual growth and has recently doubled in revenue and
2 headcount. With over 1,100 physicians employed in over
130 hospitals and clinics across the United States and fewer than 200 employees running the corporate head3
quarters, this business relies on a distributive leadership model to make sure that the clinical services and business
1 standards.
operations run smoothly, efficiently, and up to the highest
From the executive suite down to the hospital or “program”
level, the company is broken down into leadership
3
“dyads” of a clinical leader and an operations leader. The chief operating officer and chief clinical officer distribT officers and regional chief medical officers, who in turn
ute leadership responsibility over regional chief operating
S medical directors. This “role-player” model has proven
divide responsibility for program managers and program
successful with world champion sports teams, on paramedical teams, and within military Special Forces teams. A
vital component of this model, however, is training, team-building, and the establishment of trust.
One of the key differentiators for this rapidly growing company is the investment it makes in the ongoing
development of its human capital. It is one of the few health care companies of any size with a dedicated Organizational Development (OD) department, which has developed an academy model that is designed to meet the
advancing needs of the corporate staff, the field support staff, the clinicians, and the hospital program and
67
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68
Working in Teams
regional leadership teams. The academy model is self-buttressing, meaning that it supports itself by crossreferencing courses and training different program-level role players in unison. For example, in the initial “level 1”
training program, the operations leadership and the clinical leadership team members learn the same fundamentals, laying a foundation for understanding, trust, and interdependence across the footprint of the company. This
uniformity helps everyone who has attended the level 1 academy speak the same language, share the same
expectations, and understand the baseline knowledge.
As they advance, the leaders participate in more specialized skills training that complements the work they do.
Whether that training focuses on managing finances or managing physician performance, these team leaders are
trained to be fully competent and on the cutting edge of their own specialization, and to understand the language
of their counterpart. This ensures ongoing communicationSand transparency between co-leaders of very highpressure, high-stress program sites, which prepares these leadership
teams for the daily demands of the volatile
T
hospital environment.
O
The advanced leadership training, the third level of the academy model, is designed around a “live case” strucV problem that is facing its hospital team—such as
ture, which requires the leadership “dyad” to bring an actual
floundering patient satisfaction scores or a strained relationship
E with the hospital administration—to the training
event. Each team’s “live case” is used in every module or session in the training in order to lend context to the
R
material and to create a bridge between theory and practice. The academy takes each team through a series of
, performance (to name a few), and each session
sessions about managing culture, relationships, conflict, and
involves table exercises designed to force the teams to develop a change initiative to resolve the problem. By the
end of the seminar, each leadership team weaves together an integrated and multifaceted change plan, complete
C
with milestones. These detailed plans are shared with the regional leaders for the sake of accountability and follow-through, improving the execution and implementation A
of those initiatives.
It is estimated that the company invests almost $10,000
Rper year on the development of each of its top leaders, not including the money allocated for “continuing medical education” (known as “CME”) credits. The figure
O it is a significant amount of money that surprises
decreases for employees who bear less responsibility, and while
many business leaders across industries, it has proven valuable
L in driving business performance and retention of
the company’s “top talent.” In the time that these academies have been instituted, average length of physician
tenure has doubled, the company-wide turnover rate is the best it has been in the company’s history, and the
2
quality-based incentive bonuses that programs earn have increased
across the company. Given the annual revenue
of the company, the decreased costs associated with turnover,
3 and the training of new employees—not to mention
the intangible value of improved client satisfaction and industry reputation—the investment in leadership develop1
ment has more than justified itself.
3
Case Study Discussion Questions
T
S business, education, and the military? How do
1. What common needs exist on teams in health care, sports,
you think leadership addresses those needs?
2. How does Cogent Healthcare justify its investment in leadership development? What are the tangible shortand long-term benefits?
3. What is the best way to train leaders? Describe the Cogent Healthcare leadership development model.
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CHAPTER 4   Leadership
69
For generations, leaders and supervisors have used their positional power to issue commands and control subordinates’ behavior. They relied largely on the promise of reward and
the threat of punishment to manage and motivate employees. This business model was
designed by powerful men such as J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller Sr.
in the early 1900s to run their growing companies (Kayser, 1994). As the United States transitioned from an agrarian to an industrialized economy, factories and organizations sought
raw material and human labor to an unprecedented extent. To meet their needs, companies
hired thousands of employees who, subsequently, needed to be managed and organized.
Supervisors and foremen had almost total power to hire, fire, reward, and punish those who
worked for them. Workers were given direction, evaluated, and then either rewarded or punS 1979). But today’s competitive and fast-paced
ished based upon their performance (Edwards,
global economy requires a new organizational
model that shares power and capitalizes on
T
the collective wisdom of groups and teams (Guillen, 1994; Senge, 1990).
O
V
SELF-MANAGED WORK TEAMS
E
The most successful organizations areR
flexible, innovative, and collaborative in order to
maximize the strengths of an increasingly
, educated and diverse workforce. Hierarchical
command and control systems that emphasize authority and compliance are out of fashion
and, ultimately, ineffective in the long term (Pfeffer, 1992). Some authors have coined this
new autonomy-granting phenomenon as
Cthe second industrial revolution, postulating that
it may represent as profound a change as the first industrial revolution of the eighteenth
A
and nineteenth centuries (Fisher, 2000).
Self-managed work teams (SMWTs)R
are more than groups of people working together
to accomplish tasks defined by their managers. SMWTs are, as their name implies, truly
O
self-managed. These teams hold responsibility for the entire process: goal-setting, creating
L
a project plan, dividing up the tasks, assigning
responsibilities, and allocating compensation. For example, W. L. Gore and associates, the company that produces GORE-TEX, makes
significant use of self-directed work teams. Job titles do not exist at Gore. Rather, every
2 when it comes to compensation, the associates
employee is known as an “associate,” and
are evaluated by their entire team.
3
SMWTs share power by allowing members to participate in important decisions and to
volunteer for leadership opportunities 1
(Oh, 2012). When individuals are empowered and
motivated, they are more committed to
3 the team’s success and feel a greater sense of
involvement in the process (McIntyre & Foti, 2013). In these types of teams, discussions
tend to be more dynamic and innovativeTas members share different perspectives and work
collaboratively to find the best answers and
S solutions (Bergman, Rentsch, Small, Davenport,
& Bergman, 2012). Members realize they can use their personal power to influence group
behavior and improve team performance. Shared power, then, allows individual members
to exert their opinions and positively influence group decisions and actions. As Johnson
and Johnson (2006) suggest, “The effectiveness of any group is improved when power is
relatively mutual among its members and power is based on competence, expertise, and
information” (p. 240). Shared power based upon competence as opposed to position grants
all members the opportunity to contribute to team success.
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70
Working in Teams
LEADERSHIP AND GENDER
For most of human history, men have occupied positions of power and have enjoyed
privilege in nearly all its forms. Indeed, most of the storied leaders around the world are
men, and most of today’s revered CEOs and titans of industry are men. However, in a 2010
article from The Atlantic magazine entitled “The End of Men,” author Hanna Rosin wonders
if the golden age of male leadership is coming to an end.
Rosin’s exposition on the advancement of women leaders is based in the argument that
“the postindustrial economy is indifferent to men’s size and strength. The attributes that
are most valuable today—social intelligence, open communication, the ability to sit still
S
and focus—are, at a minimum, not predominantly male. In fact, the opposite may be true.”
T roles and strengths of men and women are
Rosin argues that the historical or traditional
social constructs more than they are biological
O ones. Her conclusion, therefore, is that the
dominance of males—even in leadership positions—is on the decline. She states, “As thinkV physical strength and stamina as the keys to
ing and communicating have come to eclipse
economic success, those societies that take E
advantage of the talents of all their adults, not
just half of them, have pulled away from the rest.” If physical strength and size no longer
command attention and respect, it follows R
that people with the greatest skill in the most
valuable areas (in Rosin’s argument, these areas
, are thinking, communicating, perspectivetaking, and social intelligence) are the ones who will ascend to leadership positions.
Leaders are only effective to the extent to which they can influence their environment
and their team. These factors may, indeed,Chave been influenced by certain social constructs or constraints in the past, but the world is in transition. The knowledge, skills, and
A
abilities that lead to success are based upon communication, cooperation, and collaboration. And these can be developed, refined, and
R acquired by men and women alike.
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
O
L
Leadership is a hotly contested subject in academic and organizational settings. Not every2
one agrees on what constitutes effective leadership. Kotter (1985) makes a strong argument
that as the workplace continues to become more
3 competitive and complex, issues of leadership, power, and influence will become increasingly important. Work teams today are
1
also contending with the ever-increasing pressure to solve complex, multidimensional
3 leader today must manage “thousands of
problems at lightning speed. The typical team
interdependent relationships—linkages to people, groups, or organizations” (Kotter, 1985,
T
p. 23). Though relatively straight-forward tasks and goals can usually be accomplished
through simple structures and concrete roleS
assignments, solving more complex problems
is a more difficult process. Teams have to figure out how to generate, evaluate, and implement innovative solutions to new and unforeseen problems. Leadership models that can
catalyze and monitor this process while empowering and developing team members are at
the very heart of effective leadership (Pfeffer, 1992).
Blake and Mouton (1961) created the Managerial Grid to graphically represent the balance between task and relationship. Their model suggests that the best leaders have a high
concern for both people and production or results.
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CHAPTER 4   Leadership
Table 4.1
Managerial Grid
High
Concern
for People
71
Country club management
Middle of the road
management
Medium
Low
Team management
Impoverished
management
Authority-compliance
Medium
High
S
T
Concern
for Production (task)
O
SOURCE: Adapted from tBlake and Mouton (1961).
V
E people than production, their style is friendly and
When leaders are more concerned with
nonconfrontational. When production is given priority over the value of people, the use of
R
authority to enforce compliance is the norm. When leaders are passive and detached from
both the people and tasks of their team,, the management style is impoverished. The ideal
Low
leadership style in this model is to value and invest in people while simultaneously creating
accountability and the expectation of task achievement (Arana, Chambel, Curral, & Tabernero,
C of the most common models of leadership.
2009). The following section describes some
A
R
In the early 1900s, leadership researchers
O assumed that great leaders had a consistent set
of innate traits that set them apart from followers. Researchers believed that once people
L
knew which personality traits were associated
with success, they could identify potential
Trait Theories
leaders and put them into positions that would maximize those traits. According to this
reasoning, identification was crucial because the personality traits associated with effective
2
leadership were only present in extraordinary people and could not be developed in people
lacking such traits. Although this was a3reasonable and systematic approach at the time,
researchers were disappointed when they were not able to identify a common set of traits
1
present in successful leaders. Research by Mann (1959) and Stogdill (1948) shattered the
illusion that great leaders are born with 3
certain characteristics; the data simply did not support that position.
T
More recent research has used characteristics of the five factor model of personality
S agreeableness, and neuroticism) to examine
(openness, conscientiousness, extraversion,
leadership qualities. Traits within the five factor model tend to be relatively stable throughout
life and are thus categorized as personality traits rather than learned behavior or transitional
states. Using this model, leadership researchers found significant differences between leaders
and followers. The most effective leaders, on average, exhibit higher levels of extraversion
(outgoingness and assertiveness), conscientiousness (diligence and work ethic), and openness (flexibility and creativity) (McCrae & Costa, 1987). Not surprisingly, the most effective
leaders work well with others, get things done, and find innovative ways to solve problems.
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72
Working in Teams
Contingency Theories
As behavioral researchers were observing leaders in various settings, they found that a
consistent style of leadership did not always work for every situation. In other words, certain styles of leadership work better depending on the specific task, composition, and
context of the group. Out of these observations emerged a theory of leadership that posits
the importance of matching leader behaviors with the context. Contingency theories rest
upon the assumption that leadership styles must adapt to changing team conditions in
order to be most effective.
Situational leadership is a well-known contingency theory of leadership developed by
Blanchard and Hersey (Blanchard, Zigarmi, &SZigarmi, 1999; Hersey, 1985). This theory suggests that leaders are defined by two things: the amount of direction they give and the
T
amount of support they give. A team leader who is highly directive gives detailed information
Ohow they should do it. Leaders who are supto members about what needs to be done and
portive give a lot of encouragement to othersVand empower them to figure out the best way
to get their job done. There are four possible leadership styles, depending on the amount of
E
direction and support a team leader gives: directing,
coaching, supporting, and delegating.
R
,
High
C
A
Supporting
R
O
L
Supportive
Behavior
Delegating
2
Low
Low
Coaching
Directing
3
1
3
T
S Directive Behavior
High
While individual leaders might have a preferred style of leadership, Blanchard and
Hersey believe the most effective leadership style depends on the team.
Situational leadership theory asserts that leadership style must be fluid and dependent
on the developmental level of team members (DeRue, Barnes, & Morgeson, 2010). When
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CHAPTER 4   Leadership
73
teams are in the forming stage of development, members are not exactly sure how they will
contribute or how the team will function together. The team is in an early developmental
stage exhibiting characteristics of low competence as a team but high commitment. At this
stage, members respond best to a leader who provides a lot of structure and uses a directing style of leadership. As the team develops, members increase …
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