1. Describe a conflict situation that requires you to use 1) avoidance, 2) defusion, and 3) confrontation in order to solve the problem. Your response should be at least 200 words in length.2. Define and give an example of business analytics. Why is this technique becoming so widely used in organizations today? Your response should be at least 200 words in length.3. Strategy formulation focuses on effectiveness, whereas strategy implementation focuses on efficiency. Which is more important—effectiveness or efficiency? Give an example of each concept, and explain your answer. Your response should be at least 200 words in length.4. Describe the relationship between annual objectives and policies. Your response should be at least 200 words in length.
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UNIT V STUDY GUIDE
Implementing Strategy
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
8. Examine the process of implementing strategies across business operations.
10. Diagram the strategy review and control process.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 7: Implementing Strategies: Management, Operations, and Human Resource Issues
Chapter 8: Implementing Strategies: Marketing, Finance/Accounting, R and D, and MIS Issues
Unit Lesson
Implementing Strategy
Chapters 7 and 8 will focus on how to implement strategies. Within the discussion, there will be ways to
effectively define an organizational structure and manage organizational culture, corporate wellness, and
employee and executive compensation. Additionally, you will learn ways to handle resistance to change,
human resource issues, and restructuring.
Strategic formulation is the positioning of forces before an action is conducted, while strategy implementation
is managing the forces during the action. For example, the formulation attempts to preempt a strategy based
on many factors to include market conditions and structure. The strategy implementation is how to implement
the strategy during the actual operational process. The chart below has been created to articulate the
variances between the two strategies.
Strategy Formulation
Before an action occurs
Effectiveness
Intellectual process
Good and analytical skills
Coordination among few
Strategy Implementation
During the action
Efficiency
Operational process
Motivation and leadership skills
Coordination among many
Annual Objectives
The annual objective process is a decentralized organization inclusive process that includes all managers and
leaders within the organization. Annual objectives assist with the allocation of resources, evaluating
managers, monitoring progress, and establishing organizational priorities. The textbook defines annual
objectives as being measurable, consistent, challenging, and able to be clearly communicated throughout the
organization (David & David, 2017). It is also noted that the objectives should be compatible with employees’
values system. These are generally revised on an annual basis in an effort to remain relevant to both the
consumer and the employees.
Policies
In an effort to fully implement strategies, an organization may need to update or incorporate new policies to
assist with achieving the organizational goals. Policy is defined as guidelines, rules, and administrative
practices to support the organization to achieve their stated goal (David & David, 2017). For example, a policy
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for a fast food restaurant may be to offer their employees reduced cost meals,UNIT
but not
free meals.
The thought
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process is that the employees may literally eat the profits of the restaurant. ByTitle
requiring a policy of a reduced
cost, the employer is able to break even while maintaining profit margins from their paying customers. The
policy may also include provisions; for instance, if an employee does not pay for his or her meal, this is
considered stealing and grounds for termination. Another policy may be a universal ban related to smoking on
the organization’s property. This policy would potentially affect their customers, employees, and visitors.
Managing Conflict
Conflict has the potential to occur within any organization, regardless of facility type. Conflict is defined as “a
disagreement between two or more parties on one or more issues” (David & David, 2017, p. 213). Conflict
can be as simple as rearranging employees’ schedules to better support the needs of customers. The
rearrangement may cause personal issues for the employees; resolution (conflict approach) can be initiated
to resolve any potential issues. Individuals may have different expectations based on required objectives, thus
potentially creating conflict. Sometimes, conflict is healthy for an organization, as long as it can be resolved
before it becomes dysfunctional or hostile. An example of healthy conflict could arise while deciphering where
to place a product and how to produce the product. This type of product induces deeper thought and
appreciation of the team effort. Conflict can promote values and increase outcomes if carried out in a way
that is constructive to both entities. There are different types of approaches related to conflict, and these are
articulated in the chart below:
Conflict Approach
Avoidance
Defusion
Confrontation
Description
Ignoring the issue or problem
Playing down or compromising
Exchange between entities so they can work
through their problems
Conflict is a fact of life whether within the organization or outside the system. Employers who recognize that
conflict (internally and externally) exists and are willing to implement procedures and practices to defuse
those instances are miles ahead of those who choose to ignore the conflict. Cascio and Boudreau (2011)
point out that different employees deal with conflict in different ways (p. 174). An increase in absences and
job related injuries, a decline in collaboration, and a reduction in the “family friendly” culture of the work place
are all signs of unresolved conflict.
There is not a “magic bullet” to create an environment where conflict is resolved in a positive way. While there
is a wealth of “self-help” theories, the fact remains that the approach taken will be case specific. It is
commonly accepted that the most efficient and effective way to deal with conflict is to design solidly facilitated
focus groups within the work team where everyone’s voice is heard and everyone’s input is valued. When
procedures are in place, the institution can reach consensus and successfully move beyond the conflict and
actually may grow from the experience.
Strategy Implementation
During the past couple of units, we have focused extensively on strategy formulation. The next step is to take
a look at strategy implementation, followed by the third step of strategy evaluation. Strategy implementation
affects all levels of management and employees within an organization. Implementation includes marketing,
finance, research and development, and information system(s) to effectively support strategic management.
Marketing can play a large role in an organization’s success. Marketing issues can include social mobilization,
TV versus online marketing, and consumer driven expectations to include pricing and warranties.
Segmentation
Market segmentation is defined as product positioning based on subdividing the market to target specific
customers (David & David, 2017). For example, the cable-based television station MTV probably would not be
the target channel to roll out a TV advertisement related to family-friendly caravans. These types of
advertisements may be more favorable to a different demographic. Another example is to target a regional
demographic. McDonald’s Corporation conducts extensive research to target sandwiches to support specific
regional demographics. For example, in India, McDonald’s does not carry beef products in an effort to be
culturally sensitive; instead, McDonald’s provides non-beef options, such as vegetarian, chicken, and fish.
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Facebook is another example that uses targeted marketing to encourage customers
purchase
a product or
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service that they may be interested in.
Title
References
Cascio, W., & Boudreau, J. (2011). Investing in people: financial impact of human resource initiatives. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2017). Strategic management: A competitive advantage approach, concepts and
cases (16th ed.) [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from
https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780134167947
Suggested Reading
The chapter presentations below will provide you with additional information on this unit’s concepts.
Click here to access the PowerPoint version of the Chapter 7 Presentation.
Click here to access the PDF version of the Chapter 7 Presentation.
Click here to access the PowerPoint version of the Chapter 8 Presentation.
Click here to access the PDF version of the Chapter 8 Presentation.
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