Campus police and security:Write a 12- to 15-page paper that explores a significant issue or problem affecting colleges or universities in 2018 (I prefer policing on university campus). In some US higher education institutions there is a debate if police on campus should be armed or not. The first half of the paper should be a descriptive narrative of the problem; describe salient events and organizational context. The second half of the case study should be analytical and prescriptive. The paper should recommend a course of action, how university work implications. I provided some references. Assignment Format Please use Times New Roman, 12-point font; double-spaces; 1-inch margins. All written assignments must follow APA (6th edition) formatting. APA is the standard writing style in education, so learn it now (even if it feels tedious).Reference librarians are also very helpful.





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4 Ways That Campus and Local Police Work Together (and Some Ways They Don’t) – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:42 PM
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4 Ways That Campus and Local Police
Work Together (and Some Ways They
By Meg Bernhard and Sarah Brown
AUGUST 03, 2015
The security roles of campus police forces and municipal law enforcement inevitably
intersect, and in many situations the two groups collaborate effectively. But the fatal
shooting last month of a 43-year-old man by a University of Cincinnati police officer who
was conducting an off-campus traffic stop has highlighted some of the complexities of that
relationship, as well as the often-murky boundaries that define their respective authorities.
To alleviate confusion, most municipal and campus law-enforcement agencies have signed
agreements, known as memoranda of understanding, that vary in scope but usually spell out
general protocols for taking on cases and leading investigations. One benefit of the
agreements is that they require all parties to come to the same table and have a thoughtful
conversation, says Steven J. Healy, managing partner of Margolis Healy, a consulting firm on
college security.
But those agreements are not, and should not be, the only instances in which they
collaborate, police officials say. Effective work requires case-by-case coordination and
constant communication.
The Chronicle spoke with several law-enforcement officials and experts about how campus
police forces do and don’t collaborate with their local counterparts. Here is a sampling.
Facilities and Resources
Campus police departments are, for the most part, smaller than the local agencies in the
cities where colleges are located. Even when colleges have their own sworn officers, they
may not have the resources to handle serious offenses, like homicides.
That’s where local forces can help, says Dolores Stafford, head of the National Association of
Clery Compliance Officers and Professionals and a former police chief at George
Washington University. (“Clery” refers to the Clery Act, a federal law that, among other
things, requires colleges to notify people on the campus of emergencies and security threats,
and to produce annual security reports.) Local and campus officers can share resources like
crime labs, she says, especially because “a campus agency might not have a crime-scene
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4 Ways That Campus and Local Police Work Together (and Some Ways They Don’t) – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:42 PM
Other forces share lines of communication. Occidental College, a liberal-arts institution of
about 2,100 students in Los Angeles, does not have its own sworn police force, relying
instead on a campus-safety department, which usually handles medical emergencies and
patrol duties.
If the department ever needs help from the Los Angeles Police Department, it can contact
the force on a shared radio frequency, says Jim Tranquada, a spokesman for Occidental.
Who Takes the Lead?
It’s often unclear who should take the lead in an investigation. What if a crime committed
on a college campus continues into the jurisdiction of local police forces? That’s when a
memorandum of understanding can be helpful, police officials and campus representatives
The University of Oregon’s police force is drafting such a memorandum with the Eugene
Police Department. Kelly McIver, a spokesman for the university police force, says that, for
the most part, his colleagues do off-campus work only when the campus’s interests intersect
with those of the city. They’ll call in the Eugene officers if a more serious crime needs
Jurisdictional questions also come into play when a college officer, patrolling off campus,
stops a driver or makes an arrest, as in the Cincinnati case. But given that many students live
off-campus, a college’s officers may on occasion have geographic responsibility beyond
campus boundaries, says Kathy R. Zoner, chief of police at Cornell University.
Data Sharing
Sharing crime data can reveal trends and lead to a more efficient allocation of resources
between a campus and a local law-enforcement agency, says Joe Vossen, associate riskmanagement counsel at United Educators, an insurance and risk-management firm that
works with colleges.
Data sharing has taken on special importance when it comes to sexual-assault cases because
someone who commits a rape on a campus might have perpetrated prior sexual offenses
off-campus, Ms. Zoner says.
Collaboration on statistics also helps colleges when they are trying to ensure compliance
with the Clery Act. A college is required under the law to compile crime statistics from its
campus as well as from public areas adjacent to college property and certain off-campus
One obstacle to such data collection is that the local police are not bound by the same
federal requirements, like the Clery Act and the gender-equity law known as Title IX, that
colleges are, says William Taylor, president of the International Association of Campus Law
Enforcement Agencies and chief of police at San Jacinto College, in Texas. As a result,
municipal law-enforcement agencies aren’t required to respond to colleges’ requests for
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4 Ways That Campus and Local Police Work Together (and Some Ways They Don’t) – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:42 PM
Working to Curb Sexual Assault
Colleges and law-enforcement agencies face escalating pressure to define their relationship
more explicitly and to collaborate in cases of sexual violence. Some colleges have signed
separate memoranda of understanding with the local police regarding sexual assault.
While some observers contend that the local police are better equipped to run investigations
of such serious crimes, Mr. Taylor says colleges, too, have a role to play, in part because their
officers often have more experience dealing with the nuances of sexual assault on a campus.
And given that college police departments tend to have smaller caseloads, they can
sometimes put more time and effort into an investigation than a major city’s police
department can, he says.
But some colleges, particularly those without sworn officers, might require help from the
local police to collect evidence and conduct witness interviews in trying to resolve sexualassault cases.
The bottom line, says Cornell’s Ms. Zoner, is that cooperation is essential in combating the
chronic underreporting of the incidents and increasing trust in the investigative process.
… but They Don’t Always Collaborate
Still, coordination between municipal and campus police forces can be tricky, especially
without a signed agreement in place. Ms. Stafford, the former George Washington police
chief, remembers confusion between her officers and those employed by the District of
Columbia, whose department has not signed an agreement with the university despite
repeated requests.
In Boston, with more than 30 colleges and universities, the city’s police department does not
have any memoranda of understanding with colleges. It deals with crimes on a case-by-case
basis, says Officer Rachel McGuire, a spokeswoman for the department.
Metropolitan police departments have a lot on their plates, so they’re often less willing to
take time to craft multiple formal agreements, Ms. Zoner says.
“Picture an investigative team that has different colleges who all want it different ways,” she
says. “Ideally we’d all try to be on the same page, but there might be valid reasons why it is
that way.”
This article is part of:
Law Enforcement and Academe
1255 Twenty-Third St., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Copyright © 2018 The Chronicle of Higher Education
Page 3 of 3
Campus Police Departments Struggle With Issues of Race – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:41 PM
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Campus Police Departments Struggle
With Issues of Race
By Peter Schmidt
DECEMBER 17, 2014
The head of the University of Pennsylvania’s
police union was not pleased to hear how
Amy Gutmann had ended up lying on the
floor this month at her own holiday party.
Ms. Gutmann, the university’s president, had
Furman U.
Recent controversies could spur greater interest in bodyworn police cameras. Such devices influence the behavior of
both o!icers and the people they deal with, said Tom
Saccenti, chief of police at Furman U., whose department
began using the cameras in 2013. “It is accountability for
both sides.”
lowered herself onto her back to show
solidarity with student demonstrators who
staged a “die-in” at her party as part of a
national wave of protests over the killing of
unarmed black men by police officers. The
high-minded rationale for her action was
exactly what inspired Eric J. Rohrback, the president of the Penn Police Association, to
regard it as a faux pas.
In a letter published by The Daily Pennsylvanian, the student newspaper, Mr. Rohrback said
Ms. Gutmann had delivered “a slap in the face to every person that wears this uniform and
serves this university.” His letter accused the protesters of ignoring how the grand jury
examining the shooting of Michael Brown of Ferguson, Mo., had “fully exonerated the
The tensions that have surfaced at Penn are similar to those found at many of the nation’s
colleges at a time of heightened attention to how the police treat members of minority
groups. Several colleges’ police forces have also been the subject of recent controversies
stemming from allegations they had engaged in racial profiling. How to equally protect all
appears to be a task many continue to struggle to get right.
Vassar College, in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., was accused last year of racial profiling after campus
security officers confronted two black women enrolled there for using their dormitory
laundromat, and called the town police on a group of local black children and teenagers
who had been noisy in the library. Catharine B. Hill, Vassar’s president, in August
announced that the college had taken several steps to deal with the problem, such as
amending its anti-discrimination policies to explicitly prohibit racial profiling and hiring a
consulting firm to assist in a review of campus security practices.
Page 1 of 4
Campus Police Departments Struggle With Issues of Race – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:41 PM
As reported in The Chronicle of Winston-Salem, N.C., students at Wake Forest University
held a town-hall meeting last month to discuss black students’ perceptions that the campus
police ask them for their identification far more than they ask other students, and give
disproportionate scrutiny to parties held by black fraternities and sororities. Regina Lawson,
the university’s police chief, told the audience that her department had established a new
bias-reporting system and plans to train its officers to avoid unconscious discrimination.
Police Backup
As proved by the case with President Gutmann of the University of Pennsylvania, however,
college administrators who take a stand against alleged police misbehavior run the risk of
alienating those they depend upon to maintain order on the campus.
In his letter criticizing Ms. Gutmann’s participation in the “die in” protest, Mr. Rohrback,
the police-union president, said, “As a supervisor of law-enforcement employees, she
should at the very least remain neutral and not give in to mob mentality.”
Instead of trying to refute him, the university’s administration scrambled to mend relations
with its police officers. Maureen Rush, vice president for public safety, said in a letter to the
campus police department that was also published in The Daily Pennsylvanian that Ms.
Gutmann merely had responded “instinctively” to the protesters and “is 110 percent
supportive of each and every member of our police department, and law enforcement in
At the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, administrators have stood behind the university
police department in a much more concrete and controversial sense, refusing demands
from black faculty, staff, and student organizations that the campus police stop routinely
publishing the race of suspects in campus crime alerts.
In a letter sent to Eric W. Kaler, the university’s president, a year ago, the campus’s Black
Faculty and Staff Association had joined the departments of African-American and African
studies and other groups in protesting what they described as a surge in campus crime alerts
that described suspects as black males.
Saying the alerts had led to a rise in racial profiling on and around the campus, they called
for the university to either remove the suspects’ race from crime alerts or give a written
justification for providing such information. They argued that “efforts to reduce crime
should never be at the expense of our black men.”
In an interview on Tuesday, Steve Henneberry, a spokesman for the University of
Minnesota, said that there were “ongoing discussions between the administration and some
groups on campus” about such concerns but that the university continued to have a policy
of using racial descriptors in its crime alerts.
“The belief is that a well-informed community is an asset to public safety,” Mr. Henneberry
said, “and that involves providing as much information as we can to our community.”
Fighting Bias
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Campus Police Departments Struggle With Issues of Race – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:41 PM
The International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, which counts
among its members the public-safety departments of about 1,200 American colleges, has
sought to push colleges to end racial profiling through voluntary accreditation standards for
its members.
Under a standard that it adopted in 2012, the association requires that colleges have a
written directive that prohibits officers from engaging in “bias-based enforcement activity”
and profiling based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or socioeconomic
It says such a directive should require that all officers receive entry-level and biennial
training to prevent profiling, that all complaints of biased enforcement be investigated, and
that such complaints be reviewed annually to identify trends or training needs.
It’s unclear, however, how much weight such standards have. Just 18 college agencies have
earned the group’s accreditation, while 23 others have earned accreditation jointly through
the association and the Commission on Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies.
Christopher G. Blake, chief staff officer of the law-enforcement administrators’ association,
said agencies without accreditation may well have developed profiling policies on their own.
The effectiveness of anti-bias training programs for the police also remains in question.
Maria (Maki) Haberfeld, who studies racial profiling as a professor of police science at the
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, part of the City University of New York, says when
police officers are caught engaging in biased enforcement, “the first and easiest thing to say
is ‘We are going to retrain them.’”
She said she was skeptical, however, of the belief that police officers can be taught to
operate without bias in a few training sessions because bias against certain groups can be so
entrenched in their thinking. Moreover, she said, “you can come up with the most
wonderful training program, but if you are not offering it to the right people, it is not going
to improve anything.”
David L. Perry, president of the law-enforcement administrators’ association and chief of
police at Florida State University, said one of the main factors keeping more campus
agencies from being accused of racial bias or excessive use of force is “our foundation in
community-oriented policing.” He said campus agencies have been at the forefront of the
community-policing movement, which they have embraced easily because they routinely
interact with students and other people on their campuses on a daily basis.
Gary J. Margolis, a former chief of police at the University of Vermont who now consults
with campus police departments, said such agencies “tend to be a little bit more sensitive to
the dynamics of race just because of the nature of an academic learning environment,”
where topics related to race are more often discussed.
Page 3 of 4
Campus Police Departments Struggle With Issues of Race – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:41 PM
If there is a major change that the recent police-shooting controversies is likely to bring
about among campus police agencies, it may be in the popularization of the body-worn
police cameras being advocated as possible deterrents to bias and other bad police
About 350 campus agencies have watched a webinar on such cameras that the lawenforcement administrators’ association offered in September, according to Tom Saccenti,
who helped organize the presentation as chief of police at Furman University. He said the
cameras, which his own agency began using in 2013, have helped in enforcing both laws and
campus codes of conduct—not just by documenting what an officer is seeing, but by
changing the behavior of those being filmed.
“It is accountability for both sides,” Mr. Saccenti said. “The officer knows he is being
recorded, but you can clearly see that there is a camera on the police officer. We have seen a
change in behavior in a lot of people who we talk to because they know they are on a
Peter Schmidt writes about affirmative action, academic labor, and issues related to
academic freedom. Contact him at
This article is part of:
Law Enforcement and Academe
1255 Twenty-Third St., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Copyright © 2018 The Chronicle of Higher Education
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Here’s What We Know About Private-College Police Departments – The Chronicle of Higher Education
9/19/18, 3:42 PM
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Here’s What We Know About PrivateCollege Police Departments
By Dan Bauman
APRIL 05, 2018
our years ago, Quinn Lester was
decidedly not an expert on policeaccountability issues and law-
enforcement abuses. Fresh off completing his
bachelor’s at Pomona College, Lester’s main
focus in 2014 was completing his Ph.D. in
political science at the Johns Hopkins
University, in Baltimore.
Scott Olson/Getty Images
The University of Chicago Police Department, one of many
private-college forces with the power to arrest and detain,
has faced repeated accusations of racial profiling. The
But this year, when Hopkins indicated it
would seek permis …
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