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Cardinal Directions
For this lab, you will learn about or review cardinal directions. You will use all three of
the Chaffey College campus maps (Rancho Cucamonga, Chino, and Fontana) to answer
the questions. I recommend that you print the lab, record your answers, and then use
those to input your answers into our online class site so that you can then get credit for
the laboratory exercise.
There is more than one way to give someone directions. Some people prefer to use the
terms left, right, up, and down. For example, you may hear someone say, “Go up to Main
Street, and turn left on Monument Road.” Others prefer to use cardinal directions, such as
north, south, east, and west. For example, you may hear someone say, “Go south on
Second Street, and turn east on Black Ridge Road.” Neither method is necessarily right or
wrong, but the Cardinal directions are more reliable, as it is more specific and will not
change relative to the person’s perspective or direction they are facing.
The cardinal directions use the four main points of a compass: north, south, east, and
west. Cardinal directions can also include intermediary directions such as northeast,
which is between north and east, and northwest, southeast, and southwest.
While outdoors, you can always figure out general cardinal directions by using the Sun.
The Sun always rises in the east in the morning, and sets in the west in the evening.
Therefore, now that you know where east and west is based on the Sun, you could figure
out where north and south are. For example, if you stand with your left hand pointed to
the west and your right hand pointed to the east, then you are facing north. If you turn
west, then you are facing south. Therefore, you can always find which direction is which
by using the sun.
Another way to figure out cardinal directions is by using a compass. No matter where you
are standing on earth, a compass will point to north. A compass has a small, lightweight
magnet balanced on an almost frictionless pivot point on which it can spin easily. The
magnet is often referred to as a needle. Imagine that the earth has a huge bar magnet
inside of it. Picture that the south-end of the bar magnet is at the North Pole. This would
cause the compass to point north because when dealing with magnets, opposite ends
attract. This happens because the Earth’s core consists of molten iron. Since the core of
the earth has such great pressure, the iron crystallizes into a solid. Convection caused by
heat radiating from the earth’s core, along with the rotation of the earth, causes the liquid
iron to rotate. It is the rotational forces that are believed to create a weak magnetic force.
This explains why a compass always points north.
Cardinal directions can also be found on a map by using a compass rose. A compass rose
is different from a compass. It is a symbol used to show direction on a map. The compass
rose has four points. Each point represents north, south, east, and west. The compass rose
has existed since the 1300’s. The term “rose” comes from the figure’s compass points,
which resembles the pedals of a flower. By using the compass rose on a map you can
figure out which way you need to go to get somewhere. You can also determine where
places are located by describing where a place is in relation to other places, such as the
United States is south of Canada and north of Mexico. To remember the order of
directions clockwise around the compass rose, you can use mnemonics, such as “Never
Eat Soggy Waffles.” The letter “N” in north corresponds to the first letter “N” in Never,
and so on with south and soggy, east and eat, and west and waffles. Sometimes, the map
will not include all four of the cardinal directions, and will instead just show a north
arrow. By knowing only one of the cardinal directions, the other three can be determined.
A map legend or key is often provided on a map to help the user understand the symbols,
colors, etc. on the map. The symbols and colors on the map mean something specific, and
the legend or key explains what they mean.
Before starting this lab, view the following video, which reviews some of the concepts
above in a more visual form: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HcglOmnbrgQ
If you would like more information on how compasses work, or the history of the
compass rose, the following articles are useful (but not required for you to read):
Brain, Marshall. “How Compasses Work.” 01 April 2000. HowStuffWorks.com.
09 November 2008.
Thoen, Bill. “Origins of the Compass Rose.” February 2001. GISnet.com.
< http://www.gisnet.com/notebook/comprose.php> 09 November 2008.
Let’s get started!
Use the three Chaffey College campus maps (Rancho Cucamonga, Chino, and Fontana)
to answer the questions below. Make sure to locate the compass rose (in the form of a
north arrow) and the map legend on each of the maps before attempting to answer the
questions so that you are able to orient yourself and understand what many of the
symbols mean.
Use the Fontana Campus map to answer the following questions:
1. Where is the compass rose (north arrow) located on the map?
A. The bottom, left-hand corner, or southwest area of the map
B. The bottom, right-hand corner, or southeast area of the map
C. The top, right-hand corner, or northeast area of the map
D. The top, left-hand corner, or northeast area of the map
2. Which of the following are found in the Academic Center (FNAC) building?
A. Student Lounge, Success Center, and EOPS
B. Bookstore, Counseling, and Campus Police/Security
C. Student Lounge, Success Center, and Admission and Records
D. Library Resource Center, Bookstore, and Student Lounge
3. Are the three buildings of the Fontana campus north, south, east or west of Merrill
Ave.?
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
4. If you were parked in the middle of the parking lot, and your class was in the Fontana
Center (FNAC), which general direction would you walk?
A. Southeast
B. Northwest
C. Northeast
D. Southwest
5. If you were in the Ralph M. Lewis Center (FNLC) visiting the Admissions and
Records office, which direction would you walk in order to go directly to your class in
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
6. If you parked on Juniper Ave,, just south of Merril Ave. by the parking lot exit, which
way would you walk in order to get to your class in the Ralph M. Lewis Center (FNLC)?
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
7. When your class was over in the Ralph M Lewis Center (FNLC), which way would
you then walk to get to your car parked on Juniper Ave., just south of Merril Ave, by the
parking lot exit?
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
8. From which side of the parking lot can you enter and exit?
A. The north side of the parking lot
B. The south side of the parking lot
C. The east side of the parking lot
D. The west side of the parking lot
9. Which way would you drive through the parking lot in order to exit?.
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
10. Is the Fontana campus north, south, east, or west of Sierra Ave.?
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
Use the Chino Campus map to answer the following questions:
11. In which building is the Admissions and Records office located?
A. Main Instructional Building (CHMB)
B. Health Science Center (CHHC)
C. Community Center (CHCM)
D. The Chino campus does not have an Admissions and Records office.
12. If you finished your class in the Health Science Center (CHHC), and your next class
was in the Main Instructional Building (CHMB), which direction would you walk to go
directly there?
A. Northeast
B. Northwest
C. Southeast
D. Southwest
13. If you were driving south on Oaks Ave, and you carefully went around the
roundabout (that circle on the map in the road), when you entered onto Eucalyptus Ave.,
which direction would you be driving?
A. Northeast
B. Northwest
C. Southeast
D. Southwest
14. Of the three buildings on the Chino campus, which one is on the south end of the
campus?
A. Main Instructional Building (CHMB)
B. Health Science Center (CHHC)
C. Community Center (CHCM)
15. How many parking lots are there on the Chino campus?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
16. If you were standing in Parking Lot C-2, which direction should you walk to get to
your car in Parking Lot C-1?
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
17. If you were standing at the intersection of Notre Dame Ave. and Oaks Ave., where is
the community Center building (CHCM) in relation to you?
A. directly south
B. southeast
C. southwest
D. northeast
Use the Rancho Cucamonga Campus map to answer the following questions:
18. Which building is directly west of the Math and Physical Sciences buildings?
A. des Lauriers Labs
B. Michael Alexander Campus Center
C. Sport Center
D. Health Science
19. Which building is directly east of the Math and Physical Sciences buildings?
A. des Lauriers Labs
B. Michael Alexander Campus Center
C. Sport Center
D. Health Science
20. Which building is northwest of the Math and Physical Sciences buildings?
A. des Lauriers Labs
B. Michael Alexander Campus Center
C. Sport Center
D. Health Science
21. Which building is southwest of the Math and Physical Sciences buildings?
A. des Lauriers Labs
B. Michael Alexander Campus Center
C. Sport Center
D. Health Science
22. Which street is on the west side of the Rancho Cucamonga campus?
A. Haven Ave.
B. College Drive
C. Panther Drive
D. Wilson Ave.
23. Which street is on the north side of the Rancho Cucamonga campus?
A. Haven Ave.
B. College Drive
C. Panther Drive
D. Wilson Ave.
24. Which street is on the southern end of the Rancho Cucamonga campus?
A. Haven Ave.
B. College Drive
C. Panther Drive
D. Wilson Ave.
25. If you are standing on Grigsby Field, which general direction should you walk to get
to the Lowder Baseball Field or the Soccer Practice Field?
A. North
B. South
C. East
D. West
Ruben S. Ayala Park
To Edison Avenue
Chino Campus
UE
VEN
EA
AM
ED
TR
NO
OAKS AVENUE
Parking Lot C-1
Parking Lot C-2
Community
Center
(CHCM)
To Central Avenue
Main Instructional Building (CHMB)
Bookstore
Campus Dean
Counseling
EOPS
Financial Aid
Library
Classrooms
Success Center
Health Science Center (CHHC)
COLLEGE PARK AVENUE
Vocational Nursing Labs
Science Labs
Community Center (CHCM)
S
TU
UE
EN
AV
Parking Lot C-4
YP
AL
Main
Instructional
Building (CHMB)
C
EU
Parking Lot C-3
Banquet Facility (joint use with City of Chino)
Culinary Arts
Fashion Design and Merchandising
Hotel and Food Service Management
Interior Design
Blue Phones
REV. 1-25-17
Parking Lot C-5
Health
Science
Center
(CHHC)
5897 College Park Avenue, Chino, CA 91710
909/652-8000
www.chaffey.edu/chino
Blue Phones
REV. 1-11-17
Latitude and Longitude
The latitude and longitude grid system has been used since at least 300 B.C.
The lines of this coordinate system are called lines of latitude and lines of longitude. Any
point on Earth can be located by the intersection of these lines.
Lines of latitude are also called parallels. Latitude lines run east – west around the earth,
paralleling each other. The Equator is the line of zero latitude. The number of each line
moving either northward or southward away from the equator increases in value, until
you get to either the north or south pole. Therefore, the lines are numbered 0°, at the
Equator, to 90°, at the poles. Since the numbers will repeat themselves, you always have
to state if the latitude line you are referring to is north or south of the equator. In other
words, you have to state if you are referring to the northern or southern hemisphere.
Lines of longitude are also called meridians. Longitude lines run north – south from pole
to pole. Therefore, they all cross each other at both the North and South Poles. The
beginning of the longitude lines starts at 0°, a line called the prime meridian. The prime
meridian runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. Going from the
prime meridian westward, longitude lines are numbered up to180° West (because they
are in the western hemisphere west of England). Going from The Prime Meridian
eastward, longitude lines are numbered up to 180°East (because they are in the eastern
hemisphere, east of England). As a side note, the 180° meridian is basically the
International Date Line.
When stating a location’s longitude and latitude, it is extremely important to specify
which hemisphere of latitude and which hemisphere of longitude of the particular
location. In other words, when you state a line of latitude, you have to state if the location
is north or south of the equator. When you state a line of longitude, you must state if the
location is east or west of Greenwich, England. For example, let’s look at California. For
latitude, California is north of the equator (it is in the Northern Hemisphere). For
longitude, California is west of England (it is in the Western Hemisphere). Therefore, it
should makes sense that Rancho Cucamonga, CA is located at about 34° North latitude
and 118° West longitude.
For this lab, you will be determining locations based on given latitudes and longitudes. I
recommend that you print the maps and questions, plot the locations on the map, fill in
class site so that you can then get credit for the laboratory exercise. If you find you are a
website/game, which is juvenile, but fun:
http://www.abcya.com/latitude_and_longitude_practice.htm
If the maps in this lab are difficult to see, either download the pdf file I have posted on
Moodle, or visit The World Factbook site and download the pdf files of these maps
yourself in order to zoom in to be more clear:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/refmaps.html
150° W
90° W
30° W

30° E
90° E
150° E
90° N
60° N
30° N

30° S
60° S
90° S
130°
110°
120°
100°
90°
50°
40°
30°
120°
110°
100°
90°
80°
Using the maps above, answer the following questions. Then, when you are done, log into our class, and submit
class management system, you will not be given credit for this assignment.
1. Which country is found at 60° N latitude and 90° E longitude?
2. Which country is found at 30° N latitude and 30° E longitude?
3. Which country is found at 30° N latitude and 90° W longitude?
4. Which country is found at 60° N latitude and 120° W longitude?
5. Which country is found at 30° N latitude and 0° longitude?
6. Which country is found at 30° S latitude and 120° E longitude?
7. Which country is found at 30° S latitude and 60° W longitude?
8. Which country is found at 60° N latitude and 60° E longitude?
9. Which country is found at 0° latitude and 60° W longitude?
10. Which country is found at 30° N latitude and 60° E longitude?
11. Which ocean is found at 0° latitude and 90° E longitude?
12. Which ocean is found at 30° N latitude and 30° W longitude?
13. Which ocean is found at 30° S latitude and 90° W longitude?
14. Which ocean is found at 90° N latitude and 30° W longitude?
15. Which ocean is found at 30° N latitude and 150° W longitude?
16. Which ocean is found at 30° N latitude and 120° W longitude?
17. Which ocean is found at 60° S latitude and 30° E longitude?
18. Which ocean is found at 30° S latitude and 30° W longitude?
19. Which ocean is found at 10° S latitude and 30° W longitude?
20. Which ocean is found at 0° latitude and 60° E longitude?
21. Which state is found at 40° N latitude and 90° W longitude?
22. Which state is found at 30° N latitude and 100° W longitude?
23. Which state is found at 40° N latitude and 110° W longitude?
24. Which state is found at 35° N latitude and 105° W longitude?
25. Which state is found at 45° N latitude and 85° W longitude?
CD-A
CD-B
CD-C
CD-D
Blue Phones
REV. 1-25-17
GPS
Assessment
24 Parking
Fuel