Answer each question 1-3 minimum of 300 words. Use provided material (PDF book) as well one additional source to answer each question. Remember to use in-text citations in each new paragraph. Reference/cite in APA format. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Here is the reference for the PDF: Cordner, G. W. (2016). Police administration (9th ed.). New York: Routledge.1.) After reading Case Study 4, “Gaining Outside Commitment in Lowell, Massachusetts” and Case Study 5, “Leading Change in Riverside California (the case studies are located at the end of the weekly reading assignment), identify and compare and contrast the police executive styles utilized by Chiefs Davis and Fortier.2.) Discuss the internal and external roles displayed by both chiefs.3.) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each chief’s style as they directly apply to Davis and Fortier?
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CHAPTER 6 F unctions
of Police Management
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
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• Cite the six basic functions of police management.
• Identify the three management functions that
, are primarily performed by top-level managers.








Explain the importance of system learning for organizational effectiveness.
Identify the five steps in the planning process.
Identify four types of police plans.
Identify six separate staffing functions.
Explain the importance of “prevailing mythology” for recruitment.
Identify four major activities within the training function.
Distinguish assessment centers from other techniques used in the promotion process.
Identify four activities that comprise the directing function.
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F
F
A
N
managers
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What do people who are called
do? What are their primary responsibilities? A review of the literature on management functions shows that authorities have different answers to these questions. Acronyms such as PODSCORB
1 Coordinating, Reporting, Budgeting)1 and
(Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing,
POSTBECPIRD (Planning, Organizing,
Budgeting, Equipment,
5 Staffing, Training,
2
Coordination, Public Information, Reporting, Directing) were proposed years ago by
management theorists in order to define6management functions. Sayles identified three
8 in external work flows through lateral interbasic managerial functions: participation
action; leading; and monitoring.3 Eastman
T and Eastman saw the functions of 4management as planning, organizing, assembling resources, directing, and controlling. Koontz
and O’Donnell agreed, but substitutedSthe word “staffing” for the term “assembling
resources.”5
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Functions of Police Management   143
In this chapter we will discuss six basic police management functions:
1. system building;
2. planning;
3. organizing;
4. staffing;
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6. controlling.
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Performing these management functions skillfully
and knowledgeably is critically
D
important. Aside from the obvious benefits accruing
to
departmental professionalism
E
and stability, the legal concept of vicarious liability has placed significantly greater
L police chiefs or other police mandemands on police managers.6 In instances in which
agers improperly perform certain management functions,
or negligently fail to perform
L
those functions, they can be sued for improperly,discharging the duties of their offices.7
5. directing;
The growth of the concept of vicarious liability serves as a reminder of the importance of
proper performance of police management functions and adds a measure of accountability not previously experienced by most police managers.
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F Organization
Management Functions by Level in the
F
To some extent, every manager in the police organization performs the six manA
agement functions of system building, planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and
controlling. However, the relative importance ofN
the functions varies, depending on the
manager’s level in the police organization.
Y
Managers at the chief administrative level in a police agency are obviously responsible
for the successful performance of all six management functions. It is their responsibility
to ensure that the department achieves its goals 1
and objectives as fully as possible, that
the department abides by the law, and is responsive
5 to its community. Police chiefs, in
particular, can never delegate responsibility for any of the six management functions.
6
Responsibility for the six is uniquely theirs.
8 authority as discussed in Chapter 5,
By the same token, police chiefs must delegate
including managerial authority. Except in the smallest
T departments, chiefs must delegate
some of the authority and some of the work involved in system building, planning,
organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling toS
subordinate managers at the command
and supervisory levels.
144   The Traditional Perspective
Delegation of authority to lower levels of management to perform the three functions
of staffing, directing, and controlling is essential. This is not to say that these functions
are any less important than the other three, but rather that they are more appropriately
performed by subordinate managers. The staffing function should be assigned to a
command-level manager, except in small agencies, in which the chief will perform most
staffing tasks. Directing and controlling are the basic elements of every manager’s job
throughout the police department. Commanders and supervisors must be primarily
Ldirect subordinates know how to perform their
concerned with making certain that their
jobs and that they perform them effectively
I and productively.
These three functions—staffing, directing, and controlling—can be thought of as
D sure that the organization runs according to
operating the organization, and making
design. They primarily depend on managers’
D technical and human skills; that is, on their
expertise in doing the work of the organization
and their skills in dealing with people.
E
The other three management functions—system building, planning, and organizing—
L constructing the design of the organization
are more concerned with formulating and
in the first place. These latter three functions,
L therefore, are less amenable to delegation.
Developing the overall departmental design
, and deciding on goals and priorities and how
best to achieve them are functions best performed at the chief administrative level in the
police agency. These functions depend heavily on conceptual skills—“the ability to see
the enterprise as a whole” and to see “how
T changes in any one part affect all the others.”8
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F
System Building
F
In the ideal organizational setting, in which the systems approach to management has
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traditionally been applied, it might not be necessary to address system building as a separate management function. However, inNthe police field, it is essential for administrators
to realize that many police problems have
Y evolved specifically because police administra9
tors have developed their organizations without paying attention to systems concepts.
The systems theory is so foreign to some police administrators and so basic to the
1
development of sound organizations universally,
that special emphasis must be placed on
system building: what it is and how it can
5 be used. Although some police administrators
build good systems instinctively, few really have understood all of the ramifications of
6
what they have been doing. System building has been isolated in this chapter as one of the
8 the other five primary functions are totally
six primary management functions because
dependent on it for their implementation.
T
In part, system building simply means constructing coherent systems that take
S that meet the goals and objectives of the
inputs, process them, and produce outputs
police department. Other management functions are concerned with components of
this responsibility. Staffing, for example, attempts to ensure that the organization has
6
Functions of Police Management   145
the numbers and kinds of people needed as employees to process inputs into outputs by
doing the work of the agency. Directing is concerned with making sure that employees
know what they are supposed to do and how to do it. What distinguishes system building
is its focus on the entire management system and its application of systems concepts.
Carrying out the management function of system building requires that the police
executive give considerable attention to four interrelated systems concepts: the interdependence of elements in a system; the organizational environment; the key role played
L learning, and change.
by feedback; and the need for ongoing adaptation,
I
Interdependence
D
The various parts of a system are interdependent,
D meaning that each part affects the
others. Consequently, a change made in one part of
Ea system is likely to have an impact on
another part. In addition, because police departments are open systems, changes occurring outside the organization are likely to affectLthe police system’s inputs, processes,
and outputs. An important managerial responsibility
L is to anticipate and manage these
interactive effects so that the effectiveness of the police
, agency is not hampered by external
changes.
Sometimes it is obvious that new inputs or changes in the environment are likely
to affect the police organization. Major changes
T in inputs include new employees,
budget cuts, a new police facility, new types of information made available by developI
ing technology, or new departmental responsibilities, such as homeland security tasks.
F political officials, a downturn in the
Environmental changes could include newly elected
economy, annexation of additional land area, or new
F laws passed by the legislature. Most
police managers could and would anticipate that changes of this magnitude might affect
A
various parts of the police organizational system. These managers should then take the
N as effectively as possible, regardless of
necessary actions to keep their systems functioning
the changes that face the agency.
Y
Sometimes, relatively insignificant changes can have surprising effects. One competent police chief who managed his department from a systems perspective learned
1
very quickly the importance of seemingly insignificant
factors when he decided that
it would be in the best interests of departmental5efficiency if he moved the office of a
civilian employee from one area of the police station to another. His decision was made
6
purely on the basis of a need to utilize space more effectively; the decision was made in
8
keeping with the goals and objectives he had established
for his department. The civilian
employee was a responsible person who had complete
authority over the department’s
T
fiscal affairs. When the chief announced that her office was to be moved, she construed it
S an attempt to downgrade her status.
as a personal affront, a reflection on her abilities, and
She became extremely emotional and expressed her outrage to family and friends. Her
husband became so concerned about her condition that he came to the police station and
146   The Traditional Perspective
personally registered a complaint with the chief. The woman’s work suffered as a result,
and she sought employment elsewhere.
After much deliberation, the chief finally decided to reverse the original order to
move the woman’s office and made every conceivable effort to explain a mistake for which
he took total blame. The woman was satisfied, her work output became better than ever,
and her feelings toward the chief were warm and friendly.
In another, smaller department, the hiring of several zealous young officers over a
L the personnel makeup and its operational
two- to three-year period gradually changed
style. What had been a service-orientedIand community-oriented police agency became
a much more legalistic and enforcement-oriented one. Had this gradual evolution
matched corresponding changes in the D
community or its political leadership, the effects
might have been positive. In this instance,
D however, police–community conflict developed, and the chief eventually became discredited
and lost his job. He either misjudged
E
the needs of his community or failed to monitor and manage the effects of new inputs
L
to the system.
Environment
L
,
As open systems, police organizations interact with their environments. Changes
in the police organizational environment
T can have important effects on police system
functioning, as noted above; thus, a crucial aspect of system building and police adminisI
tration involves managing these effects. In addition, police executives should seek positive
F monitor changes in the environment; and,
inputs from their environments; constantly
when possible, attempt to modify the environment
for the benefit of their communities
F
and police departments.
A
Among the inputs that police departments need from their environments are fiscal
Nnew creative ideas, and community and politresources, material goods, job applicants,
ical support. Part of system building, Y
then, involves seeking fiscal resources through
the budget process, grants, and other sources; obtaining needed equipment and, when
appropriate, encouraging research and development efforts to produce better equipment;
attracting sufficient numbers of the best1possible applicants for both sworn and civilian
positions; identifying new concepts, techniques,
and ideas, and bringing them into the
5
police organization; and developing and sustaining moral support and active assistance
6
within the community and among the political leadership. Performing these aspects of
8 system functioning by maintaining a steady
system building helps contribute to healthy
flow of new energy into the system. T
To secure these kinds of inputs for their organizations, and to anticipate external
S police executives should constantly monitor
changes that might affect their organizations,
their environments. This means that they, or their staffs, should keep up with changes
in the community, technological developments, social changes, legislative proposals, and
6
Functions of Police Management   147
political trends. They must also keep abreast of developments within the field of policing
by reading the literature, belonging to professional associations, attending professional
meetings, monitoring important websites and list-serves, and keeping in touch with colleagues who themselves are well informed. Their objective should be to take advantage of
new developments, adapt when possible and, at the very least, prevent their departments
from being surprised or embarrassed by important changes in the environment. Even
when it is not possible for the police agency to avoid being affected adversely by some
change in the environment, it is useful to be wellLinformed and to have the opportunity
to minimize any negative effects.
I
Sometimes organizations can take a more proactive role by modifying, rather than
D be able to develop support in the
merely adapting to, their environments. They may
community for new strategies of policing, prevent
D serious budget cuts, or press for
needed legislation. One police chief, believing that
E career criminals were getting off too
lightly, systematically championed a tougher approach to handling repeat offenders. He
L programs, and he convinced other
convinced the state to allocate funds for experimental
criminal justice officials in his area to cooperate with
L the police department on a coordinated new interagency initiative. In this instance,
, this police chief went beyond merely
reacting to or adapting to his organization’s environment and was able to change the
environment itself in a way that benefited the community and the police department.10
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Feedback
F
Construction of closed-loop systems that provide
feedback is an essential aspect
of the system-building function of police management.
It is also probably the most
F
neglected aspect. Police executives tend to stop short of acquiring authoritative feedback.
A
It is much easier for a police manager to ignore feedback than it is to aggressively seek
feedback, some of which may identify his or her N
own shortcomings.
Any individual or organization truly concerned
about effectiveness, excellence,
Y
quality, and serving the customer will have a great desire for feedback. Feedback can
provide the information that is needed to determine which organizational components
1
are operating properly and which are not. With feedback,
executives can routinely correct
system parts that are not working properly, reward
5 those that are, and generally keep the
enterprise on course.
6
What this means for police managers is that they must build and maintain systems
that provide feedback. Mechanisms for providing8
feedback vary with each system and can
include information systems, program evaluations,
T performance appraisals, inspections,
internal affairs, customer surveys, and “management by walking around.”11 The use of
feedback is typically within the context of one ofSthe other management functions—to
exercise control over improper conduct, for example, to provide clearer direction to
employees, or to reorganize within the system in order to facilitate better coordination.
148   The Traditional Perspective
Managers will only know that these kinds of actions are necessary, however, when systems
have been built in such a way that they provide ongoing feedback.
Change and Organizational Learning
Many capable police chiefs have exerted tremendous efforts in order to build
sound organizational systems in their departments, only to discover serious probL failed to understand was that system buildlems after only a few years. What these chiefs
ing, like all of police administration, isI a continuous process that is never completed.
The world surrounding a police agency is always changing, as are the people within the
police department. The shifts and dutiesD
that once satisfied a young patrol officer may not
satisfy her as she grows older. The knowledge
D and skills of a police manager may evolve as
she matures, gains experience, and receives
E additional training. Ideas change within the
police profession regarding the most effective operational strategies, the viability of civilL
ian review boards, the proper limits on high-speed
pursuits, and other important matters.
The community changes. Political administrations
change. Society changes.
L
Because the police system and its environment
are dynamic rather than static, a key
,
aspect of system building is designing systems that can change, adapt to changes, and
learn from their experiences.12 Many people improve with age by gaining experience
and knowledge, which makes them wiser
T and savvier. Organizations can also change
positively for even longer periods, if properly designed and maintained. As one veteran
I
police chief put it, “an organization that is learning to learn together can sustain itself.”13
F change and adaptation have already been disTwo considerations pertinent to system
cussed—the environment and feedback.FAn additional consideration is system learning.
The most effective systems are those in which lessons are learned and not forgotten, and
A
in which lessons learned in one part of the system are shared throughout the system.14
Lessons are embodied in formal systemsN
and written policies and can be preserved in histories, diaries, slogans, and files. SharingYof lessons can be accomplished through various
ways, such as cooperation, teamwork, newsletters, and training.15
Over the long term, the most effective organizations will have these properties:
1
5
continuous monitoring of their environments;
6
proactive modification of their environments;
8
systematic feedback;
T
ongoing adaptation to internal and S
external changes;
1. positive interchanges with their environments;
2.
3.
4.
5.
6. shared learning among elements of the organization;
7. mechanisms that preserve and update system learning.
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Functions of Police Management   149
One of the primary functions of police management is to build systems within the
police organization that have these properties. When successfully accomplished, police
agencies will not only function effectively, they will also adapt over time through changes
to maintain their effectiveness.
Planning
L
Planning is a future-oriented, proactive management
function. One plans in order to
I
prepare for the future. Organizations plan so that when a decision has to be made or an
D decision or action itself tends to be
action has to be taken, they will be prepared. The
driven by a short-term focus. If effective planning
D has previously taken place, though,
a longer-term perspective has already helped identify
E the choices that employees have.
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