– I have two of my classmates posts. I need you to response to each of them separately. Also, one source for each of them. Do not write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. In attached you will find all the classmates post.
posts.docx

preposition_article_nps_1_.pdf

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# Question/
In the Preposition NPS article (found in Course Documents), review the value of
prepositioning disaster supplies ahead of a disaster. In each case presented, determine
if the effort to move supplies made a significant impact on the success or failure of the
event.
Select one event and provide an example of an action that would have provided a better
outcome for the disaster. Briefly explain how you came to that conclusion.
# Student 1 post:
Prepositioning is taking the disaster response stock and supplies to the disaster-prone area
ahead of time to plan and prepare mitigation, response and humanitarian support before, during
and after disaster strikes. The value of prepositioning disaster response supplies includes the
advantage of reducing response time when providing relief. Since the necessary disaster supplies
are nearby or in the disaster area, there will be easy access to the supplies enabling quick
response actions. Moreover, prepositioning saves transportation costs that may arise such as
airlifting of supplies from far away sources when there is a high priority of movement (Apte &
Yoho, 2011, p. 16).
Despite the slow onset of Hurricanes, the effort to move supplies to Hurricane Katrina
was slow leading to delays (Apte & Yoho, 2011, p.12). There was a lack of preparation for
functioning utilities and supplies; the government was also reactive leading to high lead-time of
response. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was sudden and affected a large geographical area
which made coordination difficult (Apte & Yoho, 2011, p. 9). More so, Haiti lacked a runway
capacity, specialized personnel, low port capacities and storage limitations in warehouses which
limited the transportation of supplies when disaster hit (Apte & Yoho, 2011, p. 11). Lastly, the
effort to supply antibiotics, vaccines, and antidotes were not effective for H1N1 influenza as the
agent is highly mutant (Apte & Yoho, 2011, p. 13). More so, health official was unable to detect
the virulent strains on time to officiate mass production of vaccines.
In the case of Hurricane Katrina, prepositioning would have seen great success. Since the
hurricane was slow in its onset, the response team would have an easy time forecasting the
magnitude and possible effects anticipated. By so doing, they should have been able to send the
necessary supplies to the area of disaster ahead of time with needed accuracy to facilitate fast
responses.
Reference
Apte, A., & Yoho, K. D. (2011). Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural
Disaster. Acquisition Research program, Naval Postgraduate School, Graduate School
of Business & Public Policy.
# Student 2 post :
In 2010, in the aftermath of the earthquake that devastated Haiti. Perhaps they were
busy trying to charter a plane to fly relief supplies into Port-au-Prince. Maybe they were
embroiled in fraught negotiations with suppliers whose prices had escalated in response to the
sudden spike in demand. Even if they were able to get goods into Haiti, they may have found
them-self casting around for the manpower or transport required to get supplies idling on a
makeshift airstrip to where they were needed. Pre-positioning locally procured relief items in
areas vulnerable to natural disaster can save lives. Buying and storing supplies locally brings
resilience, and means emergency assistance can be economic benefits to communities, builds
delivered at maximum speed and minimum cost
The ability to provide supplies quickly and cost effectively is often a great challenge due to the
location of emergencies and access restrictions. This logistical technique can improve
responsiveness. Prepositioning supports business continuity, reduces delivery lead times, cuts
the cost of transportation and overall contributes to a timely response. pre-positioning is not
limited to an organization having its own physical prepositioning in a particular location, but also
embraces vendor agreements that make a provision for access when the need arises. It could have
had a better outcome for the disaster response if that logistical technique were planned and
implemented perfectly
Pre-positioning is a preparedness measure which can improve responsiveness. Pre-positioned
enables response to immediate needs in an emergency and reduce lead time
Refernces:
Bilham, R. (2010). Lessons from the haiti earthquake.Nature, 463(7283), 878.
Carter, W. N. (2008). Disaster management: A disaster manager’s handbook.
Coppola, D. P. (2006). Introduction to international disaster managementElsevier.
NPS-LM-11-188
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Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural Disaster
28 September 2011
by
Dr. Aruna Apte, Assistant Professor, and
Dr. Keenan D. Yoho, Assistant Professor
Graduate School of Business & Public Policy
Naval Postgraduate School
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.
Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943
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Form Approved
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1. REPORT DATE
3. DATES COVERED
2. REPORT TYPE
28 SEP 2011
00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
5a. CONTRACT NUMBER
Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural Disaster
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5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
6. AUTHOR(S)
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7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
Naval Postgraduate School,Graduate School of Business & Public
Policy,Monterey,CA,93943
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
14. ABSTRACT
The need to effectively and efficiently provide emergency supplies and services is increasing all over the
world. We investigate four policy options? prepositioning supplemental resources, preemptive as well as
phased deployment of assets, and a surge of supplies and services?as potential strategies for responding to
a disaster. We illustrate the linkage between our four policy options and a disaster classification based
upon disaster localization (dispersed or local) and speed of disaster onset (slow or sudden). We summarize
our work by introducing a matrix that aligns logistics strategies with disaster types in order to assist
policymakers in their resource management decisions.
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b. ABSTRACT
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RESPONSIBLE PERSON
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18
The research presented in this report was supported by the Acquisition Chair of the
Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School.
To request Defense Acquisition Research or to become a research sponsor,
please contact:
NPS Acquisition Research Program
Attn: James B. Greene, RADM, USN, (Ret.)
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Abstract
The need to effectively and efficiently provide emergency supplies and
services is increasing all over the world. We investigate four policy options—
prepositioning supplemental resources, preemptive as well as phased deployment of
assets, and a surge of supplies and services—as potential strategies for responding
to a disaster. We illustrate the linkage between our four policy options and a
disaster classification based upon disaster localization (dispersed or local) and
speed of disaster onset (slow or sudden). We summarize our work by introducing a
matrix that aligns logistics strategies with disaster types in order to assist policymakers in their resource management decisions.
Keywords: logistics, natural disaster, humanitarian assistance, humanitarian
aid, disaster response
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About the Authors
Dr. Aruna Apte has successfully completed various research projects, involving
application of mathematical models and optimization techniques that have led to over
20 research articles and one patent. Her research interests are in developing
mathematical models for complex, real-world operational problems using optimization
tools. She values that her research be applicable. Currently her research is focused in
humanitarian and military logistics. She has several publications in journals, such as
Interfaces, Naval Research Logistics, Production and Operations Management. She has
recently published a monograph on Humanitarian Logistics. Aruna has over twenty years
of experience teaching operations management, operations research, and mathematics
courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She has advised emergency planners
in preparing for disaster response. She is the founding and current president for a new
college (focus group) in Humanitarian Operations and Crisis Management under the
flagship academic professional society in her intellectual area of study, Production and
Operations Management Society.
Dr. Keenan Yoho’s primary research activities are in the area of analyzing alternatives
under conditions of uncertainty and resource scarcity. Keenan’s primary research
activities lie in the analysis of alternatives for capital purchases under conditions of
resource scarcity, supply chain management, risk analysis, humanitarian assistance and
disaster response, and resource management in environments that exhibit high degrees
of uncertainty.
Dr. Aruna Apte
Graduate School of Business and Public Policy
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, CA 93943-5000
Tel: 831-656-7583
Fax: (831) 656-3407
E-mail:auapte@nps.edu
Dr. Keenan D. Yoho
Graduate School of Business and Public Policy
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, CA 93943-5000
Tel: 831-656-2029
Fax: (831) 656-3407
E-mail: kdyoho@nps.edu
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NPS-LM-11-188
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Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural Disaster
28 September 2011
by
Dr. Aruna Apte, Assistant Professor, and
Dr. Keenan D. Yoho, Assistant Professor
Graduate School of Business & Public Policy
Naval Postgraduate School
Disclaimer: The views represented in this report are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy position of
the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the Federal Government.
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Table of Contents
I.
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………. 1
II.
Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………. 5
III.
Disaster Life Cycles ……………………………………………………………………… 7
IV.
Disaster Classification ………………………………………………………………….. 9
V.
VI.
A.
Indian Ocean “Boxing Day” Tsunami of 2004 ………………………….. 10
B.
Haiti 2010 Earthquake …………………………………………………………. 11
C.
Hurricane Katrina ……………………………………………………………….. 12
D.
Influenza “Swine Flu” Epidemic of 2009 …………………………………. 12
Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………. 15
A.
Prepositioning …………………………………………………………………….. 15
B.
Proactive Deployment …………………………………………………………. 17
C.
Phased Deployment ……………………………………………………………. 18
D.
Surge Capacity …………………………………………………………………… 20
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………. 21
List of References ………………………………………………………………………………… 25
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I.
Introduction
In 2009 there were 335 natural disasters reported worldwide that killed 10,655
persons, affected more than 119 million others, and caused over $41.3 billion in
economic damages (Vos, Rodriguez, Below, & Guha-Sapir. 2009). The number of
natural disasters reported between 1900 and 2010 has increased significantly and,
with it, the number of requests for aid and humanitarian assistance (see Figure 1).
While the trend in the number of disasters reported shows an increase, it is not clear
that there has been a commensurate response in terms of preparedness. The
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) reports that of all funds
used to support disaster operations, 90% are spent for response, whereas 10% are
spent on preparedness activities and investments and risk reduction (A. Giegerich,
personal communication, September 21, 2010). The United Nations estimates that
every dollar spent to prepare for a disaster saves seven dollars in disaster response
(United Nations Human Development Program, 2007).
550
500
450
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350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Figure 1. Number of Disasters Reported from 1900–2010
(EM–DAT, 2011)
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Although the objective of all the organizations and agencies involved in
humanitarian assistance is to reduce human suffering and casualties, the duration
and severity of the human toll during a natural disaster is largely dependent upon the
speed and scope of the response, which is often a function of the level of
preparedness that has been established prior to the disaster event. While there are
no internationally agreed upon metrics by which to judge or measure the
effectiveness of a response to a disaster, scholars working in the humanitarian and
disaster response research area have found that improvement is desirable (Apte,
2009; Van Wassenhove, 2006). An effective and efficient humanitarian response
depends “on the ability of logisticians to procure, transport and receive supplies at
the site of a humanitarian relief effort” (Thomas, 2003). In this research we focus on
the response to a disaster area in the form of distributing supplies, and strategies
that will enhance the effectiveness of such a response. For the purpose of this
research, we accept the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters’
(CRED) definition of disaster, which is “a situation or event which overwhelms local
capacity, necessitating a request to a national or international level for external
assistance.”
The unpredictability of the timing of a disaster, as well as the scope of its
human and material destruction, raises several serious questions for emergency
planners and first responders. For example, how can a state of supply
preparedness be established and maintained? How should adequate prepositioned
disaster relief inventory be established and sustained over time, to include the
rotation of perishable stocks? How can information regarding the location, quantity,
and condition of prepositioned inventory be shared, and what effect would this
information sharing have on the total investment of prepositioned stocks? Is
prepositioning the best strategy for all types of disasters? How reliable are the
potential supply lines if it is determined that supplies should be virtually stockpiled
(that is, a detailed list or database of supplies by type and quantity is created and
maintained, as well as reliable sources that can provide the supplies quickly)?
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Should the supplies be sourced locally or from outside the disaster zone? Answers
to these questions depend on the expected onset speed of the disaster, the volume
and weight of supplies to be moved, the expected magnitude of humanitarian relief
required, and the expected likelihood of a disaster in the area.
As part of our investigation we explore four policy options: (1) prepositioning
supplemental resources in or near the incident location; (2) proactive deployment of
assets in advance of a request; (3) phased deployment of assets and supplies,
analogous to the “just in time” inventory control philosophy practiced by many
commercial manufacturers; and (4) “surge” transportation of manpower and
equipment from locations outside the disaster area.
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II.
Literature Review
One of the major issues in a response supply chain in case of a natural
disaster is to coordinate the operations and relief inventories over a large number of
stages, locations, and organizations. This has to be done while providing the
emergency supplies and services to the affected population under extreme
conditions. Decisions regarding the types of provisions that should be
prepositioned, as well as their location, should be made well before a disaster strikes
in order to provide quick response. To some extent, without such a high level of
uncer …
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