a.Identify critical components – nodes, links, and regions of the country – that are highly important to the sector.b. Do you think the greater problem today generally is too little security?Describe the consequences of too little security. Explain your answer.
hspd_8_1_.pdf

ppd_8_1_.pdf

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Administration of George W. Bush, 2003 / Dec. 17
President for National Security Affairs will
lead a national security and emergency preparedness communications policy review,
with the heads of the appropriate Federal
departments and agencies, related to convergence and next generation architecture.
Within 6 months after the issuance of this
directive, the Assistant to the President for
Homeland Security and the Assistant to the
President for National Security Affairs shall
submit for my consideration any recommended changes to such policy.
(37) This directive supersedes Presidential Decision Directive/NSC–63 of May
22, 1998 (‘‘Critical Infrastructure Protection’’), and any Presidential directives
issued prior to this directive to the extent
of any inconsistency. Moreover, the Assist-
ant to the President for Homeland Security
and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs shall jointly submit
for my consideration a Presidential directive
to make changes in Presidential directives
issued prior to this date that conform such
directives to this directive.
(38) This directive is intended only to
improve the internal management of the
executive branch of the Federal Government, and it is not intended to, and does
not, create any right or benefit, substantive
or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, against the United States, its departments, agencies, or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.
GEORGE W. BUSH
Homeland Security Presidential Directive/ HSPD–8—National
Preparedness
December 17, 2003
Subject: National Preparedness
Purpose
(1) This directive establishes policies to
strengthen the preparedness of the United
States to prevent and respond to threatened
or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major
disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all-hazards preparedness goal, establishing mechanisms for
improved delivery of Federal preparedness
assistance to State and local governments,
and outlining actions to strengthen preparedness capabilities of Federal, State, and
local entities.
Definitions
(2) For the purposes of this directive:
(a) The term ‘‘all-hazards preparedness’’
refers to preparedness for domestic
terrorist attacks, major disasters, and
other emergencies.
(b) The term ‘‘Federal departments and
agencies’’ means those executive departments enumerated in 5 U.S.C.
101, and the Department of Homeland Security; independent establishments as defined by 5 U.S.C. 104(1);
Government corporations as defined
by 5 U.S.C. 103(1); and the United
States Postal Service.
(c) The term ‘‘Federal preparedness assistance’’ means Federal department
and agency grants, cooperative agreements, loans, loan guarantees, training, and/or technical assistance provided to State and local governments
and the private sector to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from
terrorist attacks, major disasters, and
other emergencies. Unless noted otherwise, the term ‘‘assistance’’ will refer
to Federal assistance programs.
(d) The term ‘‘first responder’’ refers to
those individuals who in the early
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(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
stages of an incident are responsible
for the protection and preservation of
life, property, evidence, and the environment, including emergency response providers as defined in section
2 of the Homeland Security Act of
2002 (6 U.S.C. 101), as well as emergency management, public health,
clinical care, public works, and other
skilled support personnel (such as
equipment operators) that provide immediate support services during prevention, response, and recovery operations.
The terms ‘‘major disaster’’ and
‘‘emergency’’ have the meanings given
in section 102 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency
Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122).
The term ‘‘major events’’ refers to domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.
The term ‘‘national homeland security
preparedness-related exercises’’ refers
to homeland security-related exercises
that train and test national decision
makers and utilize resources of multiple Federal departments and agencies. Such exercises may involve State
and local first responders when appropriate. Such exercises do not include
those exercises conducted solely within a single Federal department or
agency.
The term ‘‘preparedness’’ refers to the
existence of plans, procedures, policies, training, and equipment necessary at the Federal, State, and local
level to maximize the ability to prevent, respond to, and recover from
major events. The term ‘‘readiness’’ is
used interchangeably with preparedness.
The term ‘‘prevention’’ refers to activities undertaken by the first responder community during the early
stages of an incident to reduce the
likelihood or consequences of threat-
ened or actual terrorist attacks. More
general and broader efforts to deter,
disrupt, or thwart terrorism are not
addressed in this directive.
(j) The term ‘‘Secretary’’ means the Secretary of Homeland Security.
(k) The terms ‘‘State,’’ and ‘‘local government,’’ when used in a geographical
sense, have the same meanings given
to those terms in section 2 of the
Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6
U.S.C. 101).
Relationship to HSPD–5
(3) This directive is a companion to
HSPD–5, which identifies steps for improved coordination in response to incidents. This directive describes the way
Federal departments and agencies will prepare for such a response, including prevention activities during the early stages of a
terrorism incident.
Development of a National Preparedness
Goal
(4) The Secretary is the principal Federal
official for coordinating the implementation
of all-hazards preparedness in the United
States. In cooperation with other Federal
departments and agencies, the Secretary
coordinates the preparedness of Federal response assets, and the support for, and assessment of, the preparedness of State and
local first responders.
(5) To help ensure the preparedness of
the Nation to prevent, respond to, and recover from threatened and actual domestic
terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other
emergencies, the Secretary, in coordination
with the heads of other appropriate Federal
departments and agencies and in consultation with State and local governments, shall
develop a national domestic all-hazards preparedness goal. Federal departments and
agencies will work to achieve this goal by:
(a) providing for effective, efficient, and
timely delivery of Federal preparedness assistance to State and local governments; and
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Administration of George W. Bush, 2003 / Dec. 17
(b) supporting efforts to ensure first responders are prepared to respond to
major events, especially prevention of
and response to threatened terrorist
attacks.
(6) The national preparedness goal will
establish measurable readiness priorities
and targets that appropriately balance the
potential threat and magnitude of terrorist
attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies with the resources required to prevent, respond to, and recover from them.
It will also include readiness metrics and
elements that support the national preparedness goal including standards for preparedness assessments and strategies, and
a system for assessing the Nation’s overall
preparedness to respond to major events,
especially those involving acts of terrorism.
(7) The Secretary will submit the national
preparedness goal to me through the
Homeland Security Council (HSC) for review and approval prior to, or concurrently
with, the Department of Homeland Security’s Fiscal Year 2006 budget submission
to the Office of Management and Budget.
Federal Preparedness Assistance
(8) The Secretary, in coordination with
the Attorney General, the Secretary of
Health and Human Services (HHS), and
the heads of other Federal departments
and agencies that provide assistance for first
responder preparedness, will establish a single point of access to Federal preparedness
assistance program information within 60
days of the issuance of this directive. The
Secretary will submit to me through the
HSC recommendations of specific Federal
department and agency programs to be part
of the coordinated approach. All Federal
departments and agencies will cooperate
with this effort. Agencies will continue to
issue financial assistance awards consistent
with applicable laws and regulations and
will ensure that program announcements,
solicitations, application instructions, and
other guidance documents are consistent
with other Federal preparedness programs
to the extent possible. Full implementation
of a closely coordinated interagency grant
process will be completed by September
30, 2005.
(9) To the extent permitted by law, the
primary mechanism for delivery of Federal
preparedness assistance will be awards to
the States. Awards will be delivered in a
form that allows the recipients to apply the
assistance to the highest priority preparedness requirements at the appropriate level
of government. To the extent permitted by
law, Federal preparedness assistance will be
predicated on adoption of Statewide comprehensive all-hazards preparedness strategies. The strategies should be consistent
with the national preparedness goal, should
assess the most effective ways to enhance
preparedness, should address areas facing
higher risk, especially to terrorism, and
should also address local government concerns and Citizen Corps efforts. The Secretary, in coordination with the heads of
other appropriate Federal departments and
agencies, will review and approve strategies
submitted by the States. To the extent permitted by law, adoption of approved Statewide strategies will be a requirement for
receiving Federal preparedness assistance
at all levels of government by September
30, 2005.
(10) In making allocations of Federal
preparedness assistance to the States, the
Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary of HHS, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Administrator
of the Environmental Protection Agency,
and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies that provide assistance
for first responder preparedness will base
those allocations on assessments of population concentrations, critical infrastructures, and other significant risk factors, particularly terrorism threats, to the extent
permitted by law.
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(11) Federal preparedness assistance will
support State and local entities’ efforts including planning, training, exercises, interoperability, and equipment acquisition for
major events as well as capacity building
for prevention activities such as information
gathering, detection, deterrence, and collaboration related to terrorist attacks. Such
assistance is not primarily intended to support existing capacity to address normal
local first responder operations, but to build
capacity to address major events, especially
terrorism.
(12) The Attorney General, the Secretary
of HHS, the Secretary of Transportation,
the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of
Veterans Affairs, the Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency, and the
heads of other Federal departments and
agencies that provide assistance for first responder preparedness shall coordinate with
the Secretary to ensure that such assistance
supports and is consistent with the national
preparedness goal.
(13) Federal departments and agencies
will develop appropriate mechanisms to ensure rapid obligation and disbursement of
funds from their programs to the States,
from States to the local community level,
and from local entities to the end users
to derive maximum benefit from the assistance provided. Federal departments and
agencies will report annually to the Secretary on the obligation, expenditure status,
and the use of funds associated with Federal preparedness assistance programs.
Equipment
(14) The Secretary, in coordination with
State and local officials, first responder organizations, the private sector and other
Federal civilian departments and agencies,
shall establish and implement streamlined
procedures for the ongoing development
and adoption of appropriate first responder
equipment standards that support nationwide interoperability and other capabilities
consistent with the national preparedness
goal, including the safety and health of first
responders.
(15) To the extent permitted by law,
equipment purchased through Federal preparedness assistance for first responders
shall conform to equipment standards in
place at time of purchase. Other Federal
departments and agencies that support the
purchase of first responder equipment will
coordinate their programs with the Department of Homeland Security and conform
to the same standards.
(16) The Secretary, in coordination with
other appropriate Federal departments and
agencies and in consultation with State and
local governments, will develop plans to
identify and address national first responder
equipment research and development
needs based upon assessments of current
and future threats. Other Federal departments and agencies that support preparedness research and development activities
shall coordinate their efforts with the Department of Homeland Security and ensure
they support the national preparedness
goal.
Training and Exercises
(17) The Secretary, in coordination with
the Secretary of HHS, the Attorney General, and other appropriate Federal departments and agencies and in consultation
with State and local governments, shall establish and maintain a comprehensive training program to meet the national preparedness goal. The program will identify standards and maximize the effectiveness of existing Federal programs and financial assistance and include training for the Nation’s
first responders, officials, and others with
major event preparedness, prevention, response, and recovery roles. Federal departments and agencies shall include private
organizations in the accreditation and delivery of preparedness training as appropriate
and to the extent permitted by law.
(18) The Secretary, in coordination with
other appropriate Federal departments and
agencies, shall establish a national program
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and a multi-year planning system to conduct homeland security preparedness-related exercises that reinforces identified
training standards, provides for evaluation
of readiness, and supports the national preparedness goal. The establishment and
maintenance of the program will be conducted in maximum collaboration with
State and local governments and appropriate private sector entities. All Federal
departments and agencies that conduct national homeland security preparedness-related exercises shall participate in a collaborative, interagency process to designate
such exercises on a consensus basis and
create a master exercise calendar. The Secretary will ensure that exercises included
in the calendar support the national preparedness goal. At the time of designation,
Federal departments and agencies will
identify their level of participation in national homeland security preparedness-related exercises. The Secretary will develop
a multi-year national homeland security
preparedness-related exercise plan and submit the plan to me through the HSC for
review and approval.
(19) The Secretary shall develop and
maintain a system to collect, analyze, and
disseminate lessons learned, best practices,
and information from exercises, training
events, research, and other sources, including actual incidents, and establish procedures to improve national preparedness to
prevent, respond to, and recover from
major events. The Secretary, in coordination with other Federal departments and
agencies and State and local governments,
will identify relevant classes of homelandsecurity related information and appropriate
means of transmission for the information
to be included in the system. Federal departments and agencies are directed, and
State and local governments are requested,
to provide this information to the Secretary
to the extent permitted by law.
Federal Department and Agency
Preparedness
(20) The head of each Federal department or agency shall undertake actions to
support the national preparedness goal, including adoption of quantifiable performance measurements in the areas of training,
planning, equipment, and exercises for Federal incident management and asset preparedness, to the extent permitted by law.
Specialized Federal assets such as teams,
stockpiles, and caches shall be maintained
at levels consistent with the national preparedness goal and be available for response activities as set forth in the National
Response Plan, other appropriate operational documents, and applicable authorities or guidance. Relevant Federal regulatory requirements should be consistent
with the national preparedness goal. Nothing in this directive shall limit the authority
of the Secretary of Defense with regard
to the command and control, training, planning, equipment, exercises, or employment
of Department of Defense forces, or the
allocation of Department of Defense resources.
(21) The Secretary, in coordination with
other appropriate Federal civilian departments and agencies, shall develop and
maintain a Federal response capability inventory that includes the performance parameters of the capability, the timeframe
within which the capability can be brought
to bear on an incident, and the readiness
of such capability to respond to domestic
incidents. The Department of Defense will
provide to the Secretary information describing the organizations and functions
within the Department of Defense that
may be utilized to provide support to civil
authorities during a domestic crisis.
Citizen Participation
(22) The Secretary shall work with other
appropriate Federal departments and agencies as well as State and local governments
and the private sector to encourage active
citizen participation and involvement in
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preparedness efforts. The Secretary shall
periodically review and identify the best
community practices for integrating private
citizen capabilities into local preparedness
efforts.
Public Communication
(23) The Secretary, in consultation with
other Federal departments and agencies,
State and local governments, and non-governmental organizations, shall develop a
comprehensive plan to provide accurate
and timely preparedness information to
public citizens, first responders, units of
government, the private sector, and other
interested parties and mechanisms for coordination at all levels of government.
Assessment and Evaluation
(24) The Secretary shall provide to me
through the Assistant to the President for
Homeland Security an annual status report
of the Nation’s level of preparedness, including State capabilities, the readiness of
Federal civil response assets, the utilization
of mutual aid, and an assessment of how
the Federal first responder preparedness
assistance programs support the national
preparedness goal. The first report will be
provided within 1 year of establishment of
the national prep …
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