Please see attachment (my work + example). I wrote about 4500 words and I want to reach to 7000 words so you are writing about 2500 words. I did Chapter 1,2,3 you are required to do Chapter 4,5. Please work on my work using the tables and information from what I wrote and the example I provided.Chapter 4:- Intro/ Background- Hypotheses- SummaryChapter 5:- Introduction- Discussion of research objectives- Recommendation- Limitation of study- Recommendation on future research- ConclusionThank you 🙂
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FYP2 – TAN ZHI HUI
by Tan Zhi Hui
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C1-C5.DOCX (712.5K)
T IME SUBMIT T ED
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FYP2 – TAN ZHI HUI
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Sohar University
Faculty of Business
BUMG 4103A
RESEARCH PROJECT-A
The Role of Training and Development In
Enhancing Performance of Employees-A Case Study of Sohar University
SID
STUDENT NAMES
SUPERVISOR:
Dr. Shweta Belwal
DATE OF SUBMISSION:
DD MMMM 20YY
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
PROBLEM STATEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
OVERVIEW / FRAMWORK ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
RESEARCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
POPULATION AND STUDY SAMPLE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
SAMPLE SIZE AND SELECTION OF SAMPLE …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
SOURCES OF DATA …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
COLLECTION OF DATA ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
DATA ANALYSIS STRATEGIES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
ETHICAL CONSIDRETAIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
TIMEFRAMES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………………………………. 16
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
APPENDICES …………………………………………………………………………………….. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE……………………………………………………………………… ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
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ABSTRACT
Human resource is the most determining factor of an organizations success or failure.
Having employees who are well trained and developed increases the chances of an organizations
success. This prompts the need of investigating how interrelated training, development, and training
and development are with staff performance and productivity in Sohar University. The proposed
study seeks to utilize a qualitative research design that will use questionnaires as the primary source
of data collection. In total, the study seeks to utilize a sample size of 150 respondents who are part
of the Sohar University faculty staff to be a representative of the whole target population of 530
staff. 150 structured questionnaires will be printed and given out to the sample size to fill in the
required information. After the data is collected, the study seeks to use SPSS for data analysis while
tables and graphs will be used to present the analyzed data.
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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
In any kind of institutions, the human capital remains to be one of the most fundamental
assets. This is the reason that most institutions like colleges are investing so much in human capital.
Human capital entails the employees or better to say the staff in any kind of a formal organization.
We are in an era where competition is stronger than ever. The learning environment, as well as the
business environment in most part of the world, is growing by, giving tough competition to each
other in all aspects. To cope with the dynamics of the environment, institutions must deal with these
changing trends by focusing on productivity, teamwork, and resources. According to Bompa, &
Buzzichelli, (2018), productivity and performance in an organization depend on how efficient and
effective human capital is in performing the internal process within the organization.
The extensive competition and the constant change in technology advancement and the
learning environment characterizes most of the higher learning institutions across the world. In
addition to this, students’ needs keep on changing adding more challenges to the administration of
higher learning institutions. To meet these challenges, universities are left with no options than to
train and develop their staffs. To echo the sentiments of Ioffe and Szegedy (2015), universities have
to deal with training requirements linked up with growing student’s needs, the effects of global
citizenship, and the continuously changing technology. For this, universities have to consider
preparing their staff with the right information, skills, knowledge, techniques, and capabilities to
enable them to carry out their responsibilities. Staff training is a prerequisite to the organizational
efficiency, effectiveness, as well as improved productivity. Institutions that fail to appreciate the
impact if dynamics in the learning environment always fall short n maintaining superiority in the
learning industry. This, therefore, emphasizes the need for constantly upgrading staff skill and
knowledge as well as enhancing a positive work-related attitude within the learning institutions. To
achieve this, training and development us necessary. As stated by Ioffe, and Szegedy, (2015), the
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main purpose of training and development is to help employees develop skills, acquire knowledge
and competencies, need to improve their performance while taking the institution forward to meet
their set objectives.
According to Aigbepue and Mammud (2012), training is an organized activity for increasing
knowledge and skills of people for a specific objective. It entails the use of formal and informal
practices in which impact skills and knowledge required by employees to perform their jobs
satisfactorily. On the other hand, development is the steps set by institutions to improve the
performance of a particular department with modern technologies, ideas, and expertise to attain the
best from such a department. Development is concerned with, preparing employees, other higher
positions in the learning institutions while at the same time increasing their ability to maneuver
within the job. Development is about instilling the aspect of change in employees to help them get
ready for new opportunities and responsibilities.
Training and development is a vital aspect for universities to improve quality of their
services to students and to meet the challenges of ever-changing students’ needs and advanced
technology. The human resource department in any kind of an organization is responsible for not
only hiring and firing employees but also for ensuring employees are given the right training and
development with their stay in the organization. The human resource manager is therefore mandated
to use the available resources to develop training and development programs that suit every
employee in the organization. Training and development is not only an opportunity for growth but
also an investment that if handled correctly, would yield mega returns and benefits to universities
and the staffs involved (Aigbepue & Mammud, 2012). In the part of the university, training and
development results in increased productivity, which leads to improved profits. On the part of the
staffs, training, and development help them improve their knowledge and help them identify
themselves with the goals of the institution. Therefore, according to the above-highlighted factors,
staff training and development enhance the performance of employees.
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PROBLEM STATEMENT
Overview
Sohar University, which provides the basis for this study, is a privately hold the university that is
obliged to meeting the needs of the society and contributing to the economic and cultural well-being
of the people of Oman. To achieve this goal, the university has vowed to provide reliable, unrivaled
and quality education to all its university students. Education is considered as one major and
important factor that has greatly contributed to the grown the country as a whole. Besides, offering
quality education, which is regarded as a pillar of the economy in the country, Sohar University has
employed a big number of staff to help it deliver its mandate to the society. Employees who make
many mistakes can frustrate their co-workers, slow down the workplace, and sometimes endanger
the safety and security of the organization. (Elise Wile.,2003). Staff in the university is prone to
making mistakes while in the line of duty, which at times can result in daring consequences. The
magnitude of the mistakes made can have very high negative effects to the general output of the
staff in offering quality education. Consequently, this can influence the quality of education
students receive and the image of the university (Elise Wile.,2003) . As noted above, the success or
failure of any learning institution is usually effected through the human factor, particular staff.
Consequently, it has been asserted that training and development play a significant role is
improving the knowledge base and skills of employees. However, it had not been clearly explained
as to what types of training and development get success to learning institutions. It has also been
noted that, in an organization, that does not value the human capital, poor organizational
performance has been noticed. Following the above, it is important to find the interrelation among
training and development, Sohar University staff.
Framework
In our research we drawn graphically, the hypothesis of this research is to prove that yonder exists a
relationship between staff training and development in Sohar University and their performance
based on variables and factors suggested in the literature review above In order to give a
comprehensive overview of the aspects of this causal relationship, a number of null and alternative
hypotheses are developed to underscore different aspects of the possible effect and extent of
training and development on performance..
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INDEBENDENT
VARIABLES
DEBENDENT
VARIABLES
Training
Staff Performance
Development
Research Question/Hypothesis
This research seeks to answer the following questions.
1. What is the relationship between Sohar University staff training and development,
performance?
2. Which are the methods of training and development that influence Sohar University staff
performance?
3. What are the problems associated with Sohar University staff development?
Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research is to prove that there exists a relationship between the staff training
and development in Sohar University and their performance based on variables and factors
suggested in the literature review above. In order to give a comprehensive overview about the
aspects of this causal relationship, a number of null and alternative hypotheses are developed to
underscore different aspects of the possible impact and extent of the training and development on
performance and productivity yields.
Ho: “There is not a significant relationship between employee training and employee performance.”
H1: “There is a significant relationship between employee training and employee performance.”
Ho: “There is not a significant relationship between employee development and employee
performance.”
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H2: “There is a significant relationship between employee development and employee
performance”
Ho: “There is no significant difference between the productivity gains that training produces for
employees in comparison to development.”
H3: “There is a significant difference between the productivity gains that training produces for
employees in comparison to development.”
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1- To determine the relationship between Sohar University staff training and development,
performance, and productivity.
2- To study the methods of training and development that influence Sohar University staff
performance and productivity.
3- To determine the problems associated with Sohar University staff development.
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Chapter 2
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE
i.
Insight into Training
Many scholars have tried to explain what entails training. According to Bompa, and
Buzzichelli, (2018), training refers to the process of providing the employees will skills for doing
their jobs effectively, skillfully and qualitatively. Virtanen et al., (2003) put across the definition of
training as a practice of bridging the gap between the current performance and the standard desired
performance. Training can be administered through different methods such as on the coaching and
mentoring, peers cooperation and participation by the subordinates (Virtanen, M, et al., 2003).
Therefore, it seems mandatory by the firm to plan for such a training programs for its employees to
enhance their abilities and competencies that are needed at the workplace (Bompa, & Buzzichelli,
2018). Training is required at every stage of work. Training not only develops the capabilities of the
employee but also sharpen their thinking ability and creativity in order to take better decision in
time and in a more productive manner (S. Aigbepue & Mammud, 2012) . Moreover it also enable
employees to deal with the customer in an effective manner and respond to their complaints in
timely manner (Smith, Oczkowski, & Hill, 2009)
Ioffe, and Szegedy, (2015), adds that training is significant in the organization as it improves
the quality of work at the employee’s level. Smith, Oczkowski, and Hill, (2009), highlight the
reasons for training employees and he has enumerated a number of the reasons. These reasons
include an increased level of the competition. Firms that have emphasized considerably on training
their employees tend to have a competitive advantage when compared to other firms. Technological
advancement is another factor that has resulted in the massive training of employees, where
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atomization and mechanization has greatly influenced the employers to realize the potential that lies
on their employees, therefore, they have actively emphasized on the training of those employees
Virtanen, M, et al., (2003), did productivity survey, companies more than 100 employees in
Europe, which operates based on production and nonproduction sectors. It was found that 15%
increase in the level of education leads to increase of production sector by 45% and an increase in
the non-production sector by 28%. Furthermore, Virtanen asserts that an increase in the informal
training does not influence production in any way but an informal training done outside work
environment leads to increase in production sector by 10%. This signifies the importance of the
graduate training before they are employed. Zwick, (2011), focuses on the training young and
energetic people, they are vibrant and efficient compared to the old employees. The purpose of
training programs is to deliver good results where the employees become more efficient than they
were before. They are eventually prepared for higher responsibilities in the organizational; they are
expected to meet the organizational goal without any difficulties. According to Ioffe, and Szegedy,
(2015), successful training programs result in a positive change by assuring that trainees have
acquired necessary knowledge and skills. These programs should be trainee centered but not the
trainer centered, they should be meant to achieve certain goals after sometimes. Finally, the
outcomes of the training should be measurable.
ii.
Insight to Development
Career development is a self – an initiated program that supports the resources provided by
the manager and the firm (Amir Elnaga, Amen Imran. 2012). The human resource focuses on
developing employee with right exceptional skills and competence that in turn, foster the
organizational growth (Bompa, & Buzzichelli, 2018). As explained by Smith, Oczkowski, & Hill,
(2009), career development can be realized by establishing proper programs and mechanism that
will up the employees’ skills. Employee’s skills are vital in the organization process of expansion
and competitiveness because they are able to increase productivity in short run. Career development
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is important as it helps an organization to attain its goals and objectives in an efficient way. S.
Aigbepue and Mammud, (2012), are the opinion that career development usually gives the
employees a sign of purpose. When employees are given career progression opportunities, they own
them as it gives them a sense of responsibility since they feel they are achieving. According to
Zwick, (2011), to development is the steps set by institutions to improve the performance of a
particular department using modern technologies, ideas, and expertise to attain the best from such a
department. Development is concerned with, preparing employees, other higher positions in the
learning institutions while at the same time increasing their ability to maneuver within the job (W.
Dabale, Jagero & Nyauchi, 2014). Development is about instilling the aspect of change in
employees to help them get ready for new opportunities and responsibilities.
iii.
Insight to training and development
Numerous research has been conducted trying to determine the kind of relationship that
exists between training, development and performance and productivity. Most of these studies
provide links that exist between training and development programs with employees’ performance.
According to W. Dabale, Jagero & Nyauchi, (2014), training and development are instruments for
establishing and signaling the need for a change in the organization. Smith, Oczkowski, and Hill,
(2009), is of the view that development complement training. This is for the rationale that human
capital only exerts full potential learning surpasses the simple routine. Training and development
are strategic to …
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