Based on your readings and experience, compare and contrast how health care emergency management evolved before 9/11 to its evolution after 9/11.Why has the scope of healthcare emergency management grown so dramatically? Will the growth continue? Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.The answer should be at least 250 words.In the attachments you will find answer from other student, but do an original work.


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The attacks on the World Trade Center changed the way that people view
emergency management. These attacks showed the vulnerability within emergency
preparedness and mitigation. The terrorists knew the stress points within the U.S.
emergency system and focused on them. Prior to September eleventh, there was no
Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which means that individual airlines
were responsible for any security checks that they administered (O’Conner, 2016).
Many airlines outsourced security teams to do the screening. The issue with this was
different teams trained differently, therefore looked for certain things. Training was
a non-standardized practice meant that some items passed through some airlines
.might, not with others
Along with this paradigm of lack of standardization came with lack of agency
coordination. Once the towers were struck agencies began to deploy to help,
however, they had no plans, or procedures to deal with an attack of that magnitude
(Leonard et al., 2016). Now post 9/11 officials saw that there was a need for
standardized practices and procedures. Therefore, they created the National
Incident Management System, a multi-jurisdiction structure that incorporates local,
state and federal agencies. Because of NIMS healthcare, emergency management
agencies were able to more effectively communicate with one another for resources
and information (Simon& Teperman, 2001). Before 9/11 there was limited to no
communication between hospitals and ems workers. EMS would bring victims to the
nearest hospitals overloading that hospital (Simon& Teperman,2001). Post 9/11
hospitals and other healthcare facilities have surge capacities and training on how to
.deal with the influx of patients
Due to 9/11 emergency healthcare management has made a quick evolution. Instead
of being reactive hospitals and other agencies are focusing more on proactive
systems. These agencies understand the importance of preparedness and mitigating
.the adverse effects of hazards
The scope of emergency management has grown so dramatically because
agencies realize they are not equipped to handle every aspect of care during
hazards. Healthcare in itself is a complex, diverse field, which is divided into many
subset groups. As new conditions arise and new treatments that add another aspect
of care that needs must be met in an emergency. As hospitals and other care
facilities continue to develop with areas of research and treatments so must
planning for the worst. The growth of healthcare emergency management will
continue to grow even if science found a cure for every disease know to man. This is
because there is always room for improvement, also there will always be outliers.
People or things that do not fit into one specific category that will need to be taken
care of in emergencies. Emergency healthcare management can be expected to
.continue to expand exponentially especially as technology continues to advance
Leonard, H. B., Howitt, A. M., Cole, C., & Pfeifer, J. W. (2016, September 09).
Command Under Attack: What We’ve Learned Since 9/11 About Managing Crises.
Retrieved January 16, 2019, from
O’Connor, L. (2016, September 11). This Is What It Was Like To Go To The Airport
Before 9/11. Retrieved January 16, 2019, from
Simon, R., & Teperman, S. (2001). The World Trade Center attack. Lessons for disaster
management. Critical care (London, England), 5(6), 318-20.
Part 1:
Before September 11, 2001, health care and emergency management were two
separate disciplines. While health care institutions served communities on an
individual level, emergency management agencies collaborated with first
responders, government agencies and community stakeholders to assist with issues
related to planning, response, and recovery (Reilly & Markenson, 2011). Post 9/11
the disciplines of health care and emergency management transitioned to
strengthen ties due to the development of multiple influential initiatives, such as
those created by The Joint Commission (TJC), the executive branch of the federal
government, Congress, and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
According to Sauer, McCarthy, Knebel, & Brewster, 2009, TJC modified standards
from providing a safe “environment of care” to: (1) broadening preparedness to
comprehensive emergency management, (2) incorporating hazards vulnerability
analysis (HVA) process, and (3) encouraging hospitals to use an incident command
system (ICS). Furthermore, the emergency operations plan (EOP) incorporated in
2008 and the development of three public policy actions plans were all conducive to
improving emergency management capability of US hospitals.
The executive branch of the federal government, under the administration of
President G. W. Bush, issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-5
which established a single, comprehensive emergency management system for the
nation. HSPD-5 addressed the lack of a unified approach to domestic incident
management. As a result, a National Incident Management System (NIMS) and a
National Response Plan (NRP) came forth. Hospitals were then required to be NIMS
complaint and develop an all-hazards approach .
In addition, other HSPDs issued improved the nation’s overall preparedness .
HSPD-7: establishes a national policy for Federal department and agencies to identify
and prioritize United States critical infrastructure and key resources and to protect
them from terrorist attacks ( .
HSPD-8: establishes policies to strengthen the preparedness of the US to prevent
and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and
other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all-hazards preparedness goal,
establishing mechanisms for improved delivery of Federal preparedness assistance
to State and local governments, and outlining actions to strengthen preparedness
capabilities of Federal, State, and local entities (
HSPD-10: Biodefense for the 21stcentury
HSPD-21: establishes a National Strategy for Public Health and Medical Preparedness
(Strategy), which builds upon principles set forth in Biodefense for the 21stCentury
and will transform our national approach to protecting the health of the American
people against all disasters (
Congress, on the other hand, passed:
the Disaster Mitigation Act which required that all state, local, and tribal
governments meet the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) standards
for disaster mitigation planning to receive grant assistance;
the Bioterrorism Act, that called for the improvement of state, local, and hospital
preparedness and response to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies;
the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA) which mandates state and
local governments, eligible entities (such as hospitals) to develop and implement
emergency management plans that meet DHHS standards .
Finally, DHHS, the lead agency responsible for coordinating all public health and
medical emergency response activities by the federal governments required that
funding for the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) be administered through state
health departments, so that community response entities collaborate to develop
community emergency management capabilities (Sauer et al., 2009) .
Part 2:
The scope of healthcare emergency management has grown so dramatically due to
the increase of human interdependence and globalization. Because we live in an
interconnected world where imports and exports of goods and services from
different parts of the world have become a norm, as a nation we have exposed
ourselves to more health vulnerabilities .
The scope of healthcare emergency management will continue to grow as the world
becomes a “global village.” For example, global zoonotic disease outbreaks, such as
the Ebola outbreak in Africa, reminded us that although we are “on the other side of
the world,” due to the ease of international travel, illnesses abroad are no longer far
away. According to Dr. Sandro Galea, an epidemiologist, “shifting demographics
have removed any pretense we may have once had that problems over there are
problems over there” (Weintraub, 2014) .
When the CDC confirmed Thomas Ducan as the first travel-associated EVD diagnosed
in the United States (Ford, 2014), the nation became fearful and began to realize the
possibilities of an Ebola outbreak. Fortunately, through aggressive preventive
strategies in the United States and throughout the world, the proliferation of the
disease was curtailed .
Federation of American Scientists. (2019). Homeland Security Presidential
Directive/HSPD-7. Retrieved from
Federation of American Scientists. (2019). Homeland Security Presidential
Directive/HSPD-8. Retrieved from
Federation of American Scientists. (2019). Homeland Security Presidential
Directive/HSPD-21. Retrieved from
Ford, D. (2014). First diagnosed case of Ebola in the U.S. CNN U.S. Edition. Retrieved
Reilly, M., & Markenson, D. (2011). Health care emergency management: principles
and practice.Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett
Sauer, L, McCarthy, M., Knebel, A., & Brewster, P. (2009). Major influences on
hospital management and disaster preparedness. Disaster
Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 3(S1), S68-S73.
Weintraub, K. (2014). Ebola outbreak a wake-up call to the world. Joint Learning
Network for Universal Health Coverage. Retrieved

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