Ceremony and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian address many issues that Native Americans must still confront today, including, but not limited to, the following: cycles of poverty perpetuated by the reservation system, the exploitation of natural resources on Native lands, and the reality of racism from both outside and within Native communities. For this essay, you will select a topic that interests you, and then compose a sustained research paper that incorporates the principles of summary/paraphrase and argumentation developed in the first essay and adds outside research (5-7 pages). Keep in mind that your topic must be specific to a Native American community or communities, and remember that the novels we have read are only a springboard for thinking about issues facing Native communities; your essay should not reference either of the novels as sources. Instead, your essay must reference at least 4 nonfiction sources.Possible TopicsLand rights & the exploitation of natural resources (e.g. the Dakota Access Pipeline, uranium mining on Southwestern reservations, etc.)Unemployment on reservationsAlcoholism on reservationsSexual violence against Native womenMass incarceration and policing of Native AmericansLack of access to quality K-12 education on reservationsEquity gaps for Native American students in higher education You may select your own topic, but you must contact me for topic approval. Please note that poverty is too broad a topic for such a short paper. StructureYour essay should include an introduction (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. that introduces the topic and ends with a clearly worded, 1-2 sentence thesis statement. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Each supporting paragraph (there should be at least 3) should begin with a strong topic sentence (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and should incorporate evidence, including direct quotations from one or more of the assigned articles. Direct quotations should be incorporated using the quotation sandwich method (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and proper MLA in-text citations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The essay should also contain a strong conclusion (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The final page of the document should consist of a Works Cited (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. page. Tips for formatting electronic sources can be found here (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Formatting TipsYour document should:Be a minimum of 5 pages in lengthBe typed and double-spaced, in Times New Roman font, size 12Have 1-inch marginsInclude a properly formatted heading and a titleA properly formatted Works Cited page (see the sample provided in the instructions document for Essay 2 and review the resources available at the Purdue OWL (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).Due Dates Saturday, Oct. 27 Your proposal must be uploaded as Word document or a PDF via the assignment link in the Week 9 Module by 11:59pm. See the Week 9 Module for specific instructions.Saturday, Nov. 10: Your annotated bibliography must be uploaded as Word document or a PDF via the assignment link in the Week 11 Module by 11:59pm. See the Week 11 Module for specific instructions.Saturday, Dec. 1: Draft 1 must be uploaded as a Word document or a PDF via the assignment link in the Week 14 Module by 11:59pm for online peer review.Saturday, Dec. 8: Complete peer review for the 3 essays assigned to you by 11:59pm. Instructions for peer review (and sample peer reviews) can be located in the Week 15 Module.Thursday, Dec. 13: Draft 2 must be uploaded as a Word document or a PDF via the assignment link in the Week 16 Module by 11:59pm. I will grade this draft.Essay 2 RubricRequirementsStrongAverageNeeds ImprovementArgument: The paper advances a thoughtful argument that utilizes the argumentation skills described The Norton Field Guide to Writing.. The essay includes a clearly worded thesis statement that explains why the topic selected is important for non-Native Americans to understand. Each paragraph has an argumentative topic sentence with at least one subsequent quotation and analysis of that evidence to help prove the topic sentence, which all helps prove the thesis. The essay also includes reference(s) to at least 4 outside sources. The conclusion demonstrates the thesis’s significance. Writing: The writing is formal and polished with few grammatical/spelling/usage errors. In particular, the essay will demonstrate a strong grasp of comma usage and sentence structure. Organization & Context: The paper logically organized and does not provide unnecessary details.Presentation: The paper follows MLA formatting with double-spacing, a heading, and approximately 5-7 pages of text. The paper is presented in 12-point Times New Roman (including the header) with 1″ margins. All in-text citations are properly formatted, and the final page of the document contains a properly formatted Works Cited page that includes all sources referenced (which includes those that were summarized and/or paraphrased) in the essay.


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Haddy Badjie
English 103
Sexual Violence against Native Women
Sexual violence as defined by National Institute of Justice is the drug-facilitated
penetration, drug-facilitated penetration, sexual intimidation, grabbing, redundant sexual call as
well as non-contact unnecessary sexual assault. In the United States, there has been a lot of
incidence of rape and different other sexual assaults directed towards women. The level of
violence against women has reached unprecedented levels in the United States of America. It is
estimated that more than 4 out of 5 women have continued suffering from forcible sex. “Native
women have reported cases of domestic violence in more occasions compared to the normal
American citizens (Brockie et al. 415)”. The number of missing and murdered Native American
women has been on the rise. This is due to the lack of adequate and diligent federal response to
the extremely rising cases of human rights abuse. The levels are alarming to the tribal
governments and communities. In other cases, native women are murdered at an alarming rate to
the national average. In this paper, I will discuss the sexual violence directed to indigenous
women in America and ways through which it can be prevented from reaching alarming levels.
The scale of the problem of sexual assault against women has been on the rise, and
nothing has been done to convey the rising epidemic. Women who are exposed to sexual assault
have PTSD twice as much as the rest of the general population. This shows that sexual violence
against women is a crisis that cannot wait to be addressed. It is outrageous that majority of these
women do not want to see their rapist and abusers brought to justice. The jurisdictional race-
based organization orchestrated by America has limited the ability women protecting themselves
domestic and sexual violence. The initiatives would be well-founded to ensure that meaningful
remedies are organized. State and Federal laws have the authority of protecting native girls and
women from sexual violence, but unfortunately, they have failed terribly. For example, in the
year 2004 and 2009, the US attorney general failed to prosecute matters that were referred to
them involving sexual abuse and other related matters leaving women wondering where they
would get the required justice. “Lack of efficient law enforcement in other states, some of these
crimes would not have been investigated in these native communities (Brockie et al. 418)”.
Therefore, United States laws tend to create discrimination for native communities. This
act of discrimination allows criminals to act with the highest form of impunity. The act violates
and threatens the human rights of native girls and women. Therefore, this leads to escalation and
perpetuation of the cycle of sexual violence in native communities. As a result, women are
constantly being exposed to sexual violence should not be discriminated or treated differently.
“The passage of the Order Act and Tribal Law in 2010 showed the commitment of the American
government to begin addressing profound disparities between the differences existing in justice
systems of the tribal lands (Smith, 30)”. This leaves much more to be done to address the vice
arising in the society.
Violation of human rights
All these actions highlight the failure of America to honor its law as well as the
international obligations of respecting human rights. The most common law in the international
provision is the rights of living free from violence. By use of international advocacy, the
international community has been pressuring the United States to observe the obligations of
trying to end the epidemic violence against native women. For example, there have been raised
awareness campaigns created by the international bodies highlighting the violence that native
women undergo in the United States. The use of OAS (Organization of American States) has
helped bring into view sexual violence that native women undergo. The international community
has therefore raised concern about the sexual assault that native women are passing through in
the United States stating that these actions are accompanied by impunity thus urging the
American authority to address issues of violence through its programs, policies, and laws.
Currently, it has become difficult for the tribal courts to prosecute non-tribal individuals
who have committed different crimes against women. Actions such as rape and sexual assault
should not be allowed to occur in the tribal land specifically to women. It has been noticed that
majority non-Native men are the ones committing assaults to Native women. “The laws do not
favor women when trying to get the required form of justice that will help reduce violence
amongst women (Rosay, 30)”. Additionally, there are a few resources of women sexual assault
such as the use of the tribal criminal systems of justice, minimal backup from the local law
enforcement and limited funding from the government with the intention of improving these
types of funding. All these forms of shortcomings contribute to the high rates of familial violence
and sexual battering.
Challenges of ending women sexual violence
The chances of ending sexual violence against women require gender equality being
supported from all parts of society. Sexuality is part of being human. Gender and sex influence
various parts of a man’s life. It has been noticed that sexual violence against women can always
happen when use of her sexuality only sees the value of a woman. Therefore, when women are
not seen as equals to men, there are high chances of being sexually abused through victimization.
In many cases, women who have experienced sexual assault will be blamed for the
problem facing them. Taking the chance of blaming the woman because of another person’s
action is wrong. Women who report various cases of sexual assault are asked questions such as
what they were doing, the clothes they were wearing and whether they occasionally use drugs. It
should be known that sexual assault is supposed to be the responsibility of the person who
committed the crime. Mostly, it is not supposed to be the victim’s fault. To end sexual assault
against women, the society must agree that sexual contact between two different people cannot
easily happen unless there is a clear consent.
It will take time to overcome the vice of sexual assault against women in the society.
Overcoming socioeconomic and cultural barriers will be the highest form of problems that will
prevent appropriate actions from being taken against criminals of sexual assault. “Substance
abuse and high rates of unemployment are the main contributors to the problem, and people
cannot live on their own (Espin, 88)”. Additionally, women fear living on their own thus decides
to live in an abusive relationship. It has been realized that many Native Americans have found it
hard to fight the stigma accompanied by rape thus leaving women reserved with many questions
on ways through which they can easily handle the social problem. Furthermore, the American
government should implement the UN Declaration about the rights of native people as a way of
addressing the problems that indigenous people are undergoing. The Congress should also ensure
that implementation of legislation laws about the rights of women is done promptly and it is
given priority. The Congress should also work to ensure that there is an improvement of justice
administration to victims of sexual violence so that they can assess appropriate services. Issues
of sexual assault are supposed to be addressed immediately in the American jurisdictions.
Restoration of tribal criminal law will play a critical role in ending sexual violence
against women. Establishment of tribal jurisdictions will have the capacity and readiness of
exercising the power of administering justice to the offended personnel. America should be on
the forefront developing infrastructural equipment for the justice system so that they can be able
to provide safety for the native girls and women who are found within the territories such as
courts, tribal police departments, and code of actions. Others have different domestic violence
regulations that enforce tribal laws with the inclusion of various programs that will cater to
violent offenders. Native women’s organizations should be assisted so that they can easily better
their understanding on criminal jurisdiction that helps in implementing provisions of the tribal
laws that guides one from facing sexual assault. The organizations will play a critical role in
preparing and assisting women to use international advocacy to end the rising level of violence
against women.
Works Cited
Brockie, Teresa N., et al. “The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to PTSD,
depression, poly-drug use and suicide attempt in reservation-based Native American
adolescents and young adults.” American journal of community psychology 55.3-4
(2015): 411-421.
Espin, Oliva M. “Cultural and historical influences on sexuality in Hispanic/Latin women:
Implications for psychotherapy.” Latina Realities. Routledge, 2018. 83-96.
Rosay, André B. “Violence against American Indian and Alaska Native women and men: 2010
findings from the National intimate partner and sexual violence survey.” 2016. 20-46
Smith, Andrea. Conquest: sexual violence and American Indian genocide. Duke University
Press, 2015. 1-45
Essay 1 draft 1 reviews
Intro: I would suggest revisiting your title for capitalization and your first sentence. There are repetitive
word selections in the intro sentence. I think you make some great points about domestic violence,
rape, and murder within this population and draws the reader in to understand more about how Native
American women are impacted by sexual violence.
Thesis: Your thesis is clear as to the direction of your paper and what the reader should expect from the
supporting paragraphs.
Topic Sentence: Your topic sentences appear clear in delivering what information is being discussed in
the paper. I like the use of headings to break up your paper (and use them myself as well). I think this
helps the reader to understand too what is being examined in each section of the paper.
Evidence: I think your evidence clearly support your topics in each paragraph through examples and
citations. They nicely support the information delivered to the reader.
Conclusion: I think you did a really nice job on your paper. I would introduce a “Conclusion” heading at
the start of your paper’s conclusion. I think you make great observations regarding legislation and laws
that protect women against sexual violence. I agree cultural views and gender roles should also be
examined with regards to perceptions about sexual relationships and value of women in society.
The strength of the introduction: The introduction is very clear and concise. It provides more than
sufficient background information on the topic. I would suggest possibly adding a source for your initial
The strength of the thesis statement: While the thesis statement is clear and arguable, I would suggest
rewording it so that you are not speaking in the first person. Something along the lines of the following:
“Sexual Violence against Native American women runs rampant throughout the United States and needs
to be stopped before it reaches alarming levels.” Something of your own that is more in line with that
would do wonders for your essay.
Topic Sentences: There are a couple of great topic sentences throughout the essay, but you do lose
steam with some of the paragraphs not having clear topic sentences. I would suggest looking over your
essay and making sure every paragraph is necessary and cannot be combined with others.
Evidence: The majority of paragraphs contain evidence. There are a couple that don’t and could
definitely be supported with some evidence included. When doing citations, make sure to put the end
quote before the parentheses.
Conclusion: The conclusion does a good job of summarizing the points made in the essay. It also does
explain the broader importance of the topic being discussed as a whole.
1. Strength of Introduction – You do a good job providing relevant background information. However, it
is not clear in providing a central topic and it does not support your opinion. There are very few
grammatical errors that need to be fixed.
2. Strength of Thesis Statement – I am unable to identify your thesis statement. Usually, your thesis
statement should appear in the last few sentences of your introduction and should portray your stance
on the essay topic. I suggest you structure a thesis statement that clearly conveys the topic you will be
addressing within your essay so that the reader will be able to clearly follow along.
3. Topic Sentences – Most of your topic sentences are clear but not well written; in that, it fails to bring
up relevant facts or opinions. As a result, they do not fully convey what your topic is supposed to be.
They come across as run-on sentences and does not portray the central message of your essay.
4. Evidence – You provide evidences in your essay with proper in-text citations. Evidences in most
paragraphs are relevant but are not explained. I believe it is important that you explain the relevance of
your quotes and why you choose to incorporate them into your essay.
5. Conclusion – Your conclusion sounds more like ways to help stop sexual violence against women and
Native American women in particular. I would suggest you restate your stance and rephrase your thesis
statement within the conclusion. Also make sure the conclusion is clear and concise and the readers
understand the general message of the essay.

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