assignment to be completed. based on the passage given, answer the above questions, CASM example to be completed, fill in the who, what, where, why, and how questions, the questions below them, and the check mark section.
modified_casm_with_example.docx

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Modified CASM: Critical Appraisal of Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis
Evaluator:
Evidence Source:
Date:
General:
WHO:
WHAT:
WHERE:
WHY:
HOW:
Appraisal points
1. Was there a comprehensive and clearly described search for relevant studies?
2. Were clear and adequate criteria used to include and exclude studies from analysis?
3. Were individual studies rated independently?
4. Were individual studies rated with blinding?
5. Was inter-rater agreement adequate?
6. Was an average effect size (treatment)?
7. Were the results sufficiently relevant to my patient and practice?
Validity:
compelling _____
suggestive ______
equivocal ______
Importance: compelling _____
suggestive ______
equivocal ______
Clinical bottom line:
Taken from: The Handbook for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders, by
Christine A. Dollaghan, Ph.D., CCC-SLP. Copyright © 2007 Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.
Modified for CSAD 485
Practice Using CASM
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental
disorders characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, in addition to
the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). A
comprehensive communication assessment is a core component of the diagnostic evaluation for
ASD (Ozonoff, Goodlin-Jones, & Solomon, 2005) and guides intervention planning. The
challenge when completing this assessment is to utilize measures that capture each individual’s
communication ability. As many children with ASD use self-directed or context-specific
communication, they may have particular difficulty demonstrating their ability during a formal
assessment (Charman, Drew, Baird, & Baird, 2003; Paul, Chawarska, Cicchetti, & Volkmar,
2008). Very little is known about the speech development of these children. If speech deficits are
present in the ASD population, speech assessments should be included in the routine
communication assessment. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) would benefit from consistent
research evidence indicating best practice when completing a speech assessment with children
with ASD.
Methods: A systematic search of eight databases was used to find peer-reviewed research
articles published between 1990 and 2014 assessing the speech of children with ASD. Eligible
articles were categorized according to the assessment methods used and the speech
characteristics described. All references were exported to Endnote X5 (Thomson Reuters, 2011)
where duplicates were removed. Of the 2,687 imported articles, 1,203 duplicates were removed,
leaving 1,484 for further analysis. Due to the broad nature of the initial search, references were
further filtered according to title, abstract, and keywords. Articles were excluded from this
review if they: (a) did not include children with ASD, (b) did not focus, at least in part, on the
speech of children with ASD, or (c) focused on augmentative or alternative communication, such
as the use of speech generating devices. Of the 1,484 articles screened, 1,378 articles were
excluded based on these criteria. A randomly selected 20% sample of the 1,484 articles was
screened by the independent rater. There was 94.6% agreement on inclusion and exclusion of
these articles. Following this initial search, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were handsearched for additional articles that met the inclusion criteria. Additionally, authors and key
words were searched again in Google Scholar to ensure all relevant articles were uncovered. An
additional 10 articles were assessed for eligibility as a result of these secondary searches.
Analysis
The review identified 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria, search criteria and confidence in
ASD diagnosis. All articles were reviewed by the first author and an independent rater and were
coded according to: (a) the language developmental stage of the participants, (b) the speech
domain that was assessed, (c) the speech assessment method used, and (d) the speech
characteristics that were described.
Results
The review identified 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria. A four-phase flow diagram
adapted from PRISMA guidelines (Moher et al., 2009) outlines the study selection process
Taken from: The Handbook for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders, by
Christine A. Dollaghan, Ph.D., CCC-SLP. Copyright © 2007 Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.
Modified for CSAD 485
(Figure 1). Of the 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria, seven included participants at a
prelinguistic level of language development and 15 assessed the speech of verbal
children. Schoen et al. (2011) included both prelinguistic and verbal participants, and therefore
this article is included in both categories. As a result, the total number of articles included
in Tables 2 and 3 is 22 rather than 21. The participants included in the McCleery et al.
(2006) article produced 0–26 single words, which would also place these participants into both
the prelinguistic and verbal groups. After correspondence with the first author, it became clear
that these participants produced fewer words during direct observation than on parent report and
therefore can all be included in the prelinguistic group for the purposes of this review (J.
McCleery, email communication, October 4, 2015).
Descriptive results were described for the following variables: prelinguistic language, connected
speech samples, speech imitation, single-word naming task, and production of words and
setences. No statistics were provided.
Broome, K. McCabe, P. Docking, K., & Doble, M. (2017). A systematic review of speech
asssessments for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendations for best practice.
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 1011-1029.
Taken from: The Handbook for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders, by
Christine A. Dollaghan, Ph.D., CCC-SLP. Copyright © 2007 Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.
Modified for CSAD 485

Purchase answer to see full
attachment