A structure of nursing knowledgeThe theoretical works are nursing frameworks that have been organized into types, and the theorists who have been selected for each type. The identification of selected works within each of the types is arbitrary at best. Effort has been made to reflect the level of abstraction for each type or preference of the theorist. Types of knowledge, levels, and examples of each within the structure are illustrated in Table (see below), and discussed in the following text.Knowledge Structure Levels With Selected Examples for IllustrationStructure LevelExamplesMetaparadigmHuman beings, environment, health, and nursingPhilosophyNightingale’s philosophyConceptual modelsNeuman’s systems modelGrand theoryNeuman’s optimal client stabilityTheoryFlexible line of defense moderate optimal client stabilityMiddle-range theoryMaintaining optimal client stability with structured activity (body recall) in a community setting for healthy agingModified from Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (5th ed.). St Louis: Mosby; Fawcett, J., & DeSanto Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Conceptual models of nursing and nursing theories (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Types of Nursing Theoretical WorksNursing philosophiesNightingaleWatsonRayBennerMartinsenErikssonNursing conceptual modelsLevineRogersOremKingNeumanRoyJohnsonNursing theories and grand theoriesBoykin and SchoenhoferMeleisPenderLeiningerNewmanParseErickson, Tomlin, and SwainHusted and HustedMiddle-range nursing theoriesMercerMishelReedWiener and DoddEakes, Burke, and HainsworthBarkerKolcabaBeckSwansonRuland and Moore Questions for Analysis and Critical Reflection of Theoretical Works• Clarity: How clear is this theory?• Simplicity: How simple is this theory?• Generality: How general is this theory?• Accessibility: How accessible is this theory?• Importance: How important is this theory?QUESTIONCan you define each of them?
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