********NO PLAGIARISM!!!! CITE SOURCES*********Length: ~1,000 words. Try to approach or just exceed the word limit. Shorter papers will be lacking in content, and longer papers aren’t necessarily better.Formatting: Double-spacing; one-inch margins; use a nice-looking Serif font (e.g.Times New Roman or this font, Garamond); paginate; state the topic you have chosen at the start of the paper. Topic: Choose one of the following topics. Topic #1: Decline and fallNo civilizations, empires, or states last forever, no matter how durable and prosperous they appear at their height. In this essay, analyze why societies and polities decline and fall, drawing upon suitable examples from your lectures and readings. Assess the usefulness of the concepts of“decline” and “fall”–are there better alternatives for describing transitions from one polity to another?Topic #2: “Barbarians”From the Mongols to the Germans to the Xiongnu, nomadic and non-settled peoples have played a decisive role in the development of complex, settled societies, particularly in Eurasia. Making use of your lectures and readings, explain the different roles that these “barbarians” and their interactions with states and empires have played in world history until around 1500. Is the term “barbarian” at all useful? Topic #3: Geography and historyWhat is the relationship between geography on the one hand and the emergence and transformation of states and complex societies on the other? Location, climate, resources, and terrain can constrain the possibilities of “civilization,” but humans are more than capable of adapting and modifying their environments as well. How far is it true that “geography is destiny”? Topic #4: Imperial governanceEmpires of varying shapes, sizes, and ideological persuasions have dominated human history. In this essay, explain how imperial states and leaders have governed the large territories and diverse peoples under their rule. How have they managed their borders and ensured political stability, for example? How have they managed religious and cultural differences and relations between the imperial center and various peripheries? Which practices and approaches have proven relatively more successful?Topic #5: ReligionsA central theme in world history, and one that the textbook pays a lot of attention to, is the role of religions –polytheistic and monotheistic –in shaping the trajectories of civilizations and empires, as well as smaller polities. Explain the different ways in which religion has intersected with the politics, culture, economy, and society of these polities.