* if no reference, it is automatically plagiarism *Item 1In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent Version (written in 2002)The technological tools available today for creating computer-based learning materials are incredibly more powerful than those introduced just a few years ago. We can make our own movies with camcorders in our homes; we can publish our own books. Soon teachers and students will be able to use computer-video technology to produce their own learning materials. All it takes is time, know-how, and some funds.References:Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.Frick (1991) claimed that computers would become so powerful that K-12 educators and students would be able to produce their own multimedia and Web-based learning materials. He predicted that teachers and students would soon be able to use computer-video technology to produce their own learning materials. All it would require is time, know-how, and some funds.References:Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 2In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionIn a complex task such as creating a website for learning, instructors may want to support the generation of multiple solutions in learners’ peer feedback. Anonymity may create a social context where learners feel freer to express varied ideas, and make the task of giving feedback less inhibited. However, teachers need to know just how anonymity impacts the learning dynamic in order to make informed choices about when anonymous configurations are appropriate in peer feedback.References:Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.Increased availability of technology in my classroom makes it easier for peer feedback activities to be conducted anonymously which “may create a social context where learners feel freer to express varied ideas, and make the task of giving feedback less inhibited” (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010, p. 90). However, I worry that my students may be overly harsh if they don’t have to stand by their comments.References:Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 3In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionIn examining the history of the visionary companies, we were struck by how often they made some of their best moves not by detailed strategic planning, but rather by experimentation, trial and error, opportunism, and–quite literally–accident. What looks in hindsight like a brilliant strategy was often the residual result of opportunistic experimentation and “purposeful accidents.”References:Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.When I look back on the decisions I’ve made, it’s clear that I made some of my best choices not through a thorough analytical investigation of my options, but instead by trial and error and, often, simply by accident. The somewhat random aspect of my success or failure is, at the same time, both encouraging and scary.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 4In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionLearning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration. When learners are required to find a new portrayal of the information that has been presented, they are required to process the information at a deeper level in order to identify and demonstrate this new portrayal. When they are required to demonstrate their new portrayals to one another, this provides additional portrayals of the information being taught, thus increasing the richness of the instruction.References:Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.In order to make instruction more effective, learners should be required to find additional portrayals of the information which have been presented by the instructor. Learners are expected to then demonstrate their portrayals to one another. Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration.References:Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 5In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionComputer-mediated learning products-whether they are guided practice exercises, tutorials, simulations, games, hypertext, multimedia or Web documents merely carry out the directives (rules. programs, scripts. mark-ups) from a human tutor who originally designed the particular instructional or informational system and its subject matter. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages (i.e., groups of “signs”) being sent back and forth between the tutor and students. A computer system is a medium which conveys those human messages.References:Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can’t know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]The role of a computer-based instructional system is to deliver messages to learners. Those messages originated from a human tutor who developed the instruction. Computer systems do not understand these messages which comprise the instruction, student responses, and feedback during the learning process. A computer is merely a conduit for the exchange of messages between student and teacher. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages.References:Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can’t know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 6In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionThere is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.References:Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we “need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories….” Such theories will “help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)” (p. 27).References:Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 7In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionFirst, the potential of digital games is discussed using the tutor/tool/tutee framework proposed by Taylor (1980). Second, the potential of digital games to enhance learning by connecting game worlds and real worlds is stated. Third, the possibility of digital games to facilitate collaborative problem-solving is addressed. Fourth, the capability of digital games to provide an affective environment for science learning is suggested. Last, the potential of using digital games to promote science learning for younger students is indicated.References:Li, M. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-22.There are five advantages of using games in science learning stated in the literature. Games can be used as tools; make connections between virtual worlds and the real world; promote collaborative problem solving; provide affective and safe environments; and encourage younger students for science learning.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 8In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionLearning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.References:Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.References:Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since “learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur,” it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning (Driscoll, 2000, p.10).References:Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 9In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionWhile most tutors saw a value in using games, as: ‘good for visual/kinesthetic learners’; ‘makes teaching and learning more fun, learners are able to work at their own pace’; ‘breaks up the lesson, different learner styles’; ‘give my students variety and some fun whilst reinforcing their learning’.References:De Freitas, S. I. (2006). Using games and simulations for supporting learning. Learning, Media and Technology, 31(4), 343-358.According to Freitas (2006), games can support the learning styles of visual and kineasthetics learners. Games can make teaching and learning more fun, and learners are able to work at their own pace. Also, games are seen as a break from a lesson in which students reinforce their learning during the break.References:De Freitas, S. I. (2006). Using games and simulations for supporting learning. Learning, Media and Technology, 31(4), 343-358.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarismHintsItem 10In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.Original Source MaterialStudent VersionMajor changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else – perhaps the director of training – to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will “solve the problem.” And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem…. The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.References:Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology(p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.When top-down major changes are initiated in organizations, people tend to assume that training is needed to help members of the organization change their behavior. While training might help, if people in the organization lack commitment to accept the changes, they still might not do what management wants them to do.References:Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology(p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.Which of the following is true for the Student Version above? Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarism