attached is the discussion instructions as well as the chapter reading. please respond substantively to the questions using the chapter reading to support claims.
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Coaching vs. Mentoring:
Read the Forbes article The Difference between Coaching and Mentoring. Coaching and
mentoring are both functions of HRM. Many of the characteristics are similar. However, the two
techniques are best used for different situations. Describe the main differences between coaching
and mentoring. Give an example of a scenario in which coaching is the better method. Give an
example in which mentoring is the better method.
Reference and cite the textbook in your original post.
Reference and link to article:
Chakravarthy, P. (2011, December 20). The difference between coaching and mentoring. Forbes.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/infosys/2011/12/20/business-leadership-for-smarterorg-2/
Employee and Organizational
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Explain HRD’s strategic link to development.
• Describe aspects of employee development.
• Apply appropriate leadership style for employee development.
• Explain the processes of career development.
• Define and recognize the driving forces of organizational development.
All that is valuable in human society depends upon the
opportunity for development accorded the individual.
1. Though organizations usually lose money paying for employee development, it makes
companies attractive to potential employees.
2. Coaching is a recent term for the centuries-old process of mentoring.
3. Coaching is the best leadership style for working with an employee who is highly
competent and highly committed.
4. Individuals’ careers tend to progress through a common, predictable sequence of
5. Some frameworks of organizational change can be applied to personal lives as well as
Answers can be found at the end of the chapter.
Another aspiration of HRD is that of employee development. We will discuss how to avoid
what is known as the Peter principle (Peter & Hull, 1969), which was named after Dr. Laurence J. Peter. This principle says that employees who may be performing well at their current
job are promoted without developing the new KSAs required for the new job; or, effectively,
promoting someone to his or her level of incompetence.
Having detailed the ADDIE training process from needs analysis to evaluation, we can now better appreciate the technical connection between learning and performance in the workplace,
whether depicting that relationship using the so-called performance formula or Kirkpatrick’s
learning and performance evaluation levels 2, 3, and 4. Yet although the ADDIE processes
for training are methodical, tactical, and systematic, we should remember that in addition
to equipping employees with the KSAs to do their jobs more effectively and efficiently, the
ultimate goal in human resource development (as the term suggests) is the development of
Development and Strategic HRD
the workforce—and the organization—for the ever-changing future environment (Argyris,
1977, 1999; Cummings & Worley, 2014; Francis, Holbeche, & Reddington, 2012; Hameed &
The premise here is that ADDIE-constructed training programs should not only promote
workplace learning that leads to short-term tactical performance improvement, but also
ensure that the improved performance leads strategically to long-term development—both
at the employee and organizational levels (Gilley, Eggland, & Gilley, 2002; Hameed & Waheed,
2011; McDowall & Saunders, 2010; Rowan, 2005). Let us now delve deeper into HRD’s strategic link.
9.1 Development and Strategic HRD
Exploring HRD’s strategic aspect of development takes us back to the beginning, when we
first discussed Gilley and colleagues’ (2002) original depiction of HRD in Chapter 1. As you
may recall, Gilley and colleagues’ framework for HRD included not only the short-term focus
of training individual employees and tactically managing the performance of the organization,
but also the long-term focus of employee career development, as well as organization development (see Table 9.1), which we explore now.
Table 9.1: Framework for HRD
Source: Gilley et al., 2002.
To fully appreciate these longer term goals of HRD, we now need to think of training not
as an outcome, but as a process that feeds continuous development—specifically, the idea
of training for development (Duggan, 2013; Ford, 2014; Gilley, Maycunich, & Gilley, 2000;
Noe, 2012; Stewart & Sambrook, 2012). Viewing training as a process with developmental
outcomes ultimately speaks to how training is but one part of human resource development
(Cummings & Worley, 2014; Ford, 2014; Neirotti & Paolucci, 2013).
And, similar to the debate on the definitional nuances for training that we discussed in Chapter 1, the concept of development, too, is often contextual. For example, this is true when we
compare development to learning. Although the concepts of development and learning certainly overlap and are codependent—Leadersmiths CEO David Smith (2013) calls them the
conjoined twins—development involves learning, but not all learning is development. Specifically, we can say that learning relates to the employee’s present job requirements, whereas
development, our focus in this chapter, facilitates employee career growth within the present
job and organization (Gilley et al., 2002; Hameed & Waheed, 2011; Laird, Naquin, & Holton,
2003; Mayo & DuBois, 1987).
Development and Strategic HRD
Food for Thought: Conjoined Twins
Listen to Leadersmiths CEO David Smith discuss the conjoined twins of learning and
1. As described in the video, what is the significance of defining an organization’s core
competencies as they relate to organizational development?
2. Describe the similarities of the 7S model of organizational development to the
characteristics of Senge’s learning organization.
As Figure 9.1 depicts, the goal of strategic HRD systems is not only to introduce ADDIEdesigned training that will promote employee and organizational performance improvement outcomes (levels 3 and 4) through learning (level 2), but also ultimately to stimulate
employee and organizational development (OD) outcomes, as well.
Figure 9.1: ADDIE promotes learning, performance, and ultimately development
The ADDIE framework promotes performance improvement through learning. Over time,
such performance through learning gives rise to development, both at the employee and
Development and Strategic HRD
While HRD is not OD, employee development cannot be separated from organizational
development (Burke, 2008; Francis et al., 2012; Hameed & Waheed, 2011); that is, employee
development gives a “line of sight” to organizational development (Guidroz, Luce, & Denison,
2010; Hameed & Waheed, 2011). Operationally, as each employee learns and develops, synergies arise; specifically, as employees develop, the aggregated effect or the summation (∑) of
a developed workforce facilitates and promotes organizational development, which enables
the organization to better achieve its strategic goals in an ever-changing work environment
(Garavan, Gunnigle, & Morley, 2000). As the organization develops, it then stimulates the need
for employees to develop further, too; Crossan, Lane, and White (1999) call this employeeorganization-employee dynamic the feed forward-feedback loop. And HRD scholars advise
that, in fact, an endless loop of learning-performance-development exists whereby, as employees develop, they must continue to pursue improved performance through learning (Holton
& Baldwin, 2003; Swanson, 2002; Swanson & Holton, 2001).
This learning-performance-development loop is consistent with our discussions in Chapter 2
regarding expertise seeking; that is, development is never done because expertise itself has a
shelf life (Selinger & Crease, 2006).
Development for Competitive Advantage
Semantics and recursive loops aside, concrete, operational reasons also encourage the idea
of pursuing continuous development. Specifically, continuous development of the workforce,
including management and leadership development (Harrison, 2009), has been shown to
contribute to an organization’s competitive advantage—an organization’s ability to gain a
specific advantage over its rivals and generate greater value for its stakeholders, as well as
organizational sustainability (Berger & Berger, 2003; Dyer, 1993; Hafler, 2011; Hameed &
Waheed, 2011; Porter, 2004, 2008).
Although earlier frameworks of an organization’s competitive advantage centered on market
position and pricing, today’s competitive advantage includes the specific benefits gained by
organizing and leveraging the capabilities and potential offered by continuous development
of employees, as well as the organization (Jennings, Tucker, & Rutherford, 2013; Porter, 2008).
One study from the hospitality industry concluded that creating high-performing human capital
systems could improve an organization’s market value by $15,000 to $60,000 per employee
(Walsh, Sturman, & Longstreet, 2010). Further, in its seminal study, the human resource consulting firm Watson Wyatt Worldwide introduced the human capital index, which quantified
the economic value of human capital. Over a 2-year period, Watson Wyatt evaluated the link
between specific human capital practices and shareholder value. More than 750 large publicly
traded companies in the United States, Canada, and Europe took part in the study; the results
of the study suggested that more than 49 specific human resources practices were linked to a
47% increase in market value for the organizations surveyed (Watson Wyatt Worldwide, 2002).
This literal asset value perspective of a well-trained and well-developed workforce is part of
the resource-based view of strategic human resource development (Agbettor, 2013; Hatch
& Dyer, 2004; McGoldrick, Stewart, & Watson, 2003; Weatherly, 2003), which expressly evaluates the economic benefits of a highly trained and developed workforce (Alagaraja, 2012;
Kandula, 2011; Swanson, 2002). This underscores a major theme of HRD—that HRD is about
not just learning, but also performance through learning.
Within the pursuit of an organization’s competitive advantage through the continuous development of its workforce are considerations to succession planning and assessing the future
labor needs of the organization, specifically strategic workforce planning (SWP). SWP
focuses on maintaining a well-trained and developed workforce by implementing a talent
management program that prepares the organization for future workforce needs. Specifically, the organization scans both its internal and external operating environments to assess
and identify any potential skills gaps its workforce may face as a function of the effects of
dynamics such as labor segments retiring, new technology requirements, or a volatile economy (DeTuncq & Schmidt, 2013). Today HR professionals can even get credentialed in strategic workforce planning and pursue an SWP certification through the human capital institute
HRD in Practice: Southwest Airlines: Developing Employees
for Competitive Advantage
Julie Weber, Southwest Airlines’ vice president of people, recently described Southwest’s
philosophy for developing its workforce as follows: “Our people are our difference who will
help us continue to thrive.… We hire the best people who naturally put others first; we allow
them to shine and help them develop their full potential.”
Jeff Lamb, Southwest’s executive vice president and chief people and administrative officer,
guides this effort. “The key differentiator for us is our underlying philosophy of putting our
people first,” he explains.
That philosophy is paying off: Southwest’s turnover tends to run below 5%; in 2011 it
Lamb says the company has a simple goal for talent management: “The company wants
to help all of its employees develop to reach their full potential in a best-place-to-work
environment.” Lamb oversees a team of 2,000 within Southwest’s overall workforce
1. What do think Weber means when she says that Southwest allows its employees to shine?
Explain your reasoning.
2. Other than low turnover, what would be other indicators Southwest could draw on to
demonstrate the success of their employee development program?
Source: Excerpt from Margolis, D. (2012, July 31). Clear skies ahead: Southwest Airlines’ Jeff Lamb. Talent Management. Retrieved from http://talentmgt.
9.2 Employee Development
Employee development is generally thought of as the deliberate methods taken within an
organization to encourage employee professional and personal growth (ASTD, 2013; Cummings & Worley, 2014; Ford, 2014; Neirotti & Paolucci, 2013; Harvard Business Review Press,
2013; Wan, 2013). The strategic premise here is that by developing employees both professionally and personally, the organization benefits through its own development.
Aspects of Employee Development
According to the Society for Human Resource Management’s recent survey of 248 employers (see Table 9.2), numerous methods are used to facilitate employee development, from
various forms of mentoring to designing training with specific developmental opportunities
embedded within them. For example, immediately following on-the-job training on how to
operate an industrial web five-color press printer (for example, lifting a pallet of paper, checking that the rollers are clear, monitoring machine temperature), a subsequent developmental
activity could include adding an e-learning module, available on mobile devices, regarding
how web printers are manufactured or how upcoming technology could improve the printing process; see the Food for Thought feature box titled “Example of Employee Development:
New Possibilities in Printing” for an example of such a video.
Food for Thought: Example of Employee Development
Watch the video to learn more about the new possibilities in printing and what companies
are doing with the technology. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ae_aU5QjyoI
1. From a developmental standpoint, what is the value of informing the trainee who the
largest customers for the HP Indigo Digital Press are?
2. The video discusses trends in the marketplace; what other developmental features to the
HP Indigo Digital Press video can you find?
Table 9.2: Employee development methods
Training other than leadership training
Apprenticeships and internships (to assess potential future hires)
Matching employees with “stretch” assignments and opportunities
High-visibility assignments and opportunities to work with executives (e.g., executive
Formal identification of high-potential employees
Formal succession planning processes
Formal career mentoring (internal programs)
Formal career mentoring (external programs)
Source: Esen & Collison, 2005.
Other popular employee development methods include cross-functional training and so-called
stretch assignments and opportunities. In cross-functional training, for example, employees
are exposed to and perform other tasks within the production or service process beyond their
own job. Sometimes called job enlargement or horizontal development, this method allows
employees to get a better appreciation of the larger picture and the interrelationships of different jobs (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). For example, asking the fast-food-counter employee to
work the drive-through window gives him not only a new skill set (such as using a headset and
having to articulate clearly using a microphone), but also an appreciation of how the counter
employee’s performance impacts the drive-through efficiency: counter employees not getting
the orders in correctly impacts the cook who, in turn, cannot get to the drive-through orders.
Stretch assignments and opportunities include exposing employees to deeper dimensions of
their own job, sometimes known as job enrichment (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). Specifically,
employees are introduced to more in-depth aspects or features of their job; for example, a
salesperson in the sporting goods department may start participating in the inventory management meetings of the sales department to gain an understanding of the monthly inventory
reports. Other cross-functional developmental tactics include job rotation and job sharing.
Employee development is also facilitated by critical reflection (Brookfield, 1990; Mezirow,
1990) following the training. Critical reflection, sometimes known as after-action reviews
(Lipshitz, Popper, Friedman, & Friedman, 2006), is a generative process whereby the trainee is
encouraged to reflect and make meaning of the training experience, including what the formal
training entailed as well as lessons learned from any errors, informal and incidental learning,
and even unlearning (Hedberg & Arbetslivscentrum, 1979); poor habits are an example.
An example of critical reflection in the nursing field includes having nurse trainees honestly
contemplate and attempt to reconcile their own biases and prejudices regarding certain demographics they will encounter in their nursing practice (Fook & Gardner, 2007). This process of
seeking equilibrium with one’s environment is what organizational theorist Karl Weick (1995)
called sense making and social scientist Donald Schön called reflection on practice (Schön, 1983).
In general, critical reflection affords opportunities to think creatively about alternatives to
make processes more effective, efficient, or innovative; this process is also known as thinking
outside the box (Eisner, 2011) through experimentation and risk taking that may differ from
the status quo.
An example of this type of innovative outcome in critical reflection can be seen at Google.
Employees at Google are encouraged to spend up to 30% of their time reflecting and pursuing
their own creative interests and ideas; this approach has led to innovative products such as
Google Maps™ and Google AdSense™ and made Google more than a search engine (Hephaestus
Books, 2011; Duthel, 2008). Figure 9.2 depicts the process of critical reflection (Brookfield,
1990; Dirkx, 2005; Elliott & Turnbull, 2004; Mezirow, 1990; Wang & Wilcox, 2006).
Figure 9.2: The critical reflection process
In a development setting, the critical reflection process allows employees to describe not only
the developmental experience and the circumstances, but also their interpretation of how the
experience affected them and how they will use that experience to inform their future.
What will you do as
a result of this
will you use it to
inform your future?
Why / how did it
How do you feel
What is your new
interpretation of the
experience? What is
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