Case Study: I’ll show him how we do things hereRahim and Rawan immigrated to Canada to start a new life. Part of what excited them was the fact that many opportunities would open up for Rawan. Her dream is to get a diploma or degree but first she will need to improve her English. Their pre-planning involved quite a bit of internet research and figuring out what to bring and what to say. They have planned to go out and celebrate afterwards over coffee and pastries. In their country, it’s important to give detailed explanations and build rapport so they started by explaining the situation. Rahim’s English lacks some elements so he says, “Register my wife.” instead of “I would like to help my wife register.” He had no intention of being bossy but sometimes when you are learning a new language, your grammar and vocabulary fail you.Candice provides intake services and a couple have arrived to get the wife enrolled. The man, Rahim, continues speaking for his wife, Rawan, even though Candice has pointedly responded only to the wife with her answers. At one point Candice asks, “Can’t she speak?” in a waspish tone and blocks the husband from looking at the document she is showing the wife. She doesn’t spend the time she usually does providing extra helpful information.Rahim and Rawan feel quite dejected afterwards and not at all like celebrating. Rahim worries that his wife may learn this type of rude behavior at school. Rawan feels sorry for her husband as he has been treated in an undignified and unwelcoming manner. They had also had a list of additional questions but had been afraid to ask.
What do you think Candice is most concerned about?
What do you think the couple is most concerned about?
What pre-verbal, non-verbal, verbal, and post-verbal mismatches will likely occur throughout this encounter?
Did either party reach the desired outcome for themselves or for their organization?Read the textbook before answering the questions. 600-800 words.
samovar_ppt_2.pptx

lyons_ic_chapters_1_and_2.pptx

communication_between_cultures_9th_edition.pdf

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Communication
between cultures
9th Edition
Chapter 2
Communication and Culture:
The Voice and the Echo
© Cengage 2017
Chapter 2: Communication and Culture:
The Voice and the Echo
1
Key Ideas





The world Stage: Global Interdependence
Communication and Culture Defined
Venturing into a new culture
Ethical Issues
Intercultural Communication Challenges
©2017 Cengage
Chapter 2: Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
2
Human communication
• Communication is the basis of all human
contact
• To understand a culture we must examine
communication first
• Communication is the ability to share ideas
and feelings
• While verbal and nonveral symbols may be
different reasons people communicate are the
same
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
3
Defining Communication
Human communication is a
dynamic process in which people
attempt to share their thoughts
with other people through the
use of symbols in particular
settings.
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
4
Uses of communication
• Communication and identity
– Defines who you are
– Defines loyalties
– Defines where you belong
• Communication and person perception
– Enables you to learn about another person
– Assists in how you will describe yourself to
others
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
5
Uses of communication
• Communication and interpersonal needs
– Communication satisfies a basic social need
– Provides a sense of inclusion and affection
• Communication and
persuasion
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
6
Components of communication








Source
Encoding
Messages
Channel
Receiver
Decoding
Feedback
Noise
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
7
Characteristics of communication
• It is a dynamic process – it is not static
• It is symbolic – inferences are drawn from the
symbols people produce
• It is contextual – it is part of a larger system
– Location
– Occasion
– Time
– Number of participants
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
8
Characteristics of communication
• It is a learned behavior
– Language
– Non-verbal
• It has a consequence
– Messages “do” something to someone else
– You change people when you exchange messages
with them
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
9
Culture
• Culture is communication and communication is
culture. (Hall 1977 p. 14)
• Culture is shared and has shared meanings
• Culture Defined -Culture is a set of human-made
objective and subjective elements that in the past have
increased the probability of survival and resulted in
satisfaction for the participants in an ecological niche,
and thus became shared among those who could
communicate with each other because they had a
common language and they lived in the same time and
place. (Triandis 1994 p. 23)
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
10
Culture
• Functions of culture
– Teaches people how to adapt to surroundings
– Passes along previous knowledge and experiences to
future generations
• Elements of culture





Religion
History
Values
Social Organizations
Language
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
11
Characteristics of culture:
Culture is learned
• Informal through interpersonal means
• Formal teaching often through social
institutions
– Teaching through proverb
– Teaching through folktales, legends and myths
– Teaching through art
• Learning culture through mass media
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
12
Characteristics of culture:
Culture is passed along
• Culture is based on symbols – symbols tie
people together
• People can package, store and transmit
symbols
• Symbols can be verbal or nonverbal
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
13
Characteristics of culture:
Culture is dynamic
• Cultures are subject to change
• Changes can be brought about by new
technology
• Changes today are more prolific
– Promoted by rise of American capitalism
– Promoted by worldwide population growth
– Promoted by large movement of immigrants
– Promoted by proliferation of information
technology
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
14
Dynamic culture and Communication
• Culture is deeply rooted in tradition
• Cultures seek to endure
• The deep structure of a culture resists major
alterations
– Popular culture may be open to change
– Values, beliefs, role of government, ethics, morals,
religious practices etc. persist from generation to
generation
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
15
Characteristics of culture:
Culture is an integrated system
• All parts of a culture are interconnected
• You touch a culture in one place and everything
else is affected. (Hall 1976, p. 13-14)
• Values can influence things like family size,
work ethic, use of time and spiritual pursuits
• Changes in technology can influence other
cultural values, attitudes and behaviors
© Cengage 2012
Chapter 2 Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
16
Why Study Intercultural
Communication?
Chapters 1 and 2
CMN 3350 Intercultural Communication
Northeastern University
Prof Lyons
What is Intercultural
Communication?
The interaction between people from
different cultural backgrounds
Why should we study
Intercultural Communication?

International Applications for Intercultural Communications!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Self-Awareness Imperative
Demographic Imperative
Technological Imperative
Economic Imperative
Ethical Imperative
Peace Imperative
What
is Culture?
Culture is:

Our way of life, including everything that
is learned, shared, and transmitted from
one generation to the next. It is dynamic
– includes language, values, rules, beliefs
and the material things we create.
 Cultural
Landscapes refers to the
different lifestyles, traditions, and
perspectives that can be found in the US
and abroad (and the contexts in which
they occur).

Cultural Landscapes change rapidly. For example:
◦ The growth of social media
◦ Attitudes towards work/life balance
◦ Social equality
◦ Affirmative action
◦ Glocalization- a culture’s openess to diverse
influences and ability to blend foreign ideas and best
practices with one’s own traditions…
Traditions
 Customs
 Music
 Art
 Clothing
 Language
 History
 Religion
 FOOD

 Culture
 Culture
 Culture
 Culture
 Culture
 Culture
is Learned
involves Perception and Values
involves Feelings
is Shared
is Expressed as Behavior
is Dynamic and Heterogeneous





Thailand – Thai people greet each other with a ‘wai’ greetinghold your hands together at the chest like a prayer and give a
light bow
Kenya- Pointing with an index finger is very insulting. Use the
whole hand
Germany- Germans often bang their fists on the table to show
their appreciation at the end of a meeting
Israel- When Israelis invite someone to their home, it is an
important gesture. It is appropriate to bring a book as a gift.
Japan- When you are offered a gift, you must refuse it once,
modestly and serenely. Then you should accept the gift using
both hands
Race – refers to a category of people who are
perceived as physically distinctive on the basis of
certain traits, such as skin color, hair texture, and
facial features.
 Ethnicity – the consciousness of a cultural heritage
shared with other people – ‘Brown Pride’
 Gender – has to do with the cultural differences that
distinguish males from females. Is this changing?
HOW??? Is it the same as one’s sex?

 Dimensions
of culture:
◦ may be hidden or visible (it is not only skin
deep)
◦ are found within groups as well as within
individuals
◦ are in a constant state of flux
◦ are not always clear cut or easily defined
◦ interrelate
 Values
– What is judged to be good or
bad, right or wrong
 Worldview – a particular way of looking at
the world
All cultural groups must answer these
important questions:
What is human nature? (good, evil or mixture)
What is the relationship between humans and nature? (humans
dominate, harmony, nature dominates)
What is the relationship between humans? (individual, group,
collateral)
What is the preferred personality? (doing, growing, being)
What is the orientation towards time? (future, present, past)


Individualism – places importance on the individual
rather than the family or work team or other group
Collectivism – place a great deal of importance on
extended families, work groups, communities,
nation, etc.

Doing – being productive and keeping busy

Growing- places importance on the spiritual aspects
of life

Being- this is a process of self-actualization, ‘peak
experiences’ in which the individual is fused with
the experience
Scene from Walter Mitty
Cultures
 The
focus on:
Future
 The Present
 The Past


Power Distance- refers to the extent to which less powerful
members of institutions and organizations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally
Masculinity/Femininity- the degree to which gender-specific
roles are valued and the degree to which a cultural group
values masculine (achievement, ambition, acquisition of
material goods) or feminine (quality of life, service to others,
nurturance values )


Uncertainty Avoidance- describes the degree to which people
feel threatened by ambiguous situations and try to ensure
certainty by establishing more structure
Long-Term vs Short-Term orientation – This value has to do
with a society’s search for virtue versus truth. Societies with a
short-term orientation are concerned with ‘possessing’ the
truth (and materialism). In long-term orientation, the
emphasis is on perseverance and tenacity in whatever is
attempted regardless of how long it takes, as well on the thrift
 Compare
Cultural Value Dimensions

Carnivale

Chinese New Year


A pre-Lent festival in Brazil
combining European Catholic
traditions with African
influences (costumes, Samba
dance, etc.)
“Passing of the Nian/year”
celebrating a new year based on
the Lunar calendar featuring
loud noises, drums, fireworks
and the color Red to scare off
evil spirit and bad luck.
 Do
symbols have the same meaning
across cultures?
 Why or Why Not?
 What influences their perception and
association of cultural symbols?

Ongoing debate over a controversial name…



How do people use their own space to resist the dominant
culture (those with the power, money, etc.)?
Context – the physical or social situation in which
communication occurs. Where does much of the
communication in the world now take place?
Power- power is always present when we communicate with
each other although it is not always evident or obvious. Social
hierarchies exist in every culture which give certain groups
more power and privilege than others.
 Ethnocentrism
– the belief that one’s own
cultural group – usually equated with
nationality – is superior to all other cultural
groups
 Cultural Cruise Control – Acting as though our
own values, beliefs and experiences are
universal.
 Cultural Lag – cultural self-segregation in the
midst of diversity
Stereotyping – These develop as part of an
individual’s everyday thought process. Stereotypes
are widely held beliefs (generalizations) about a
group of people. These can be positive and
negative
 Prejudice – a negative attitude toward a cultural
group based on little or no experience. A prejudgement- prejudice tells us how we are likely to
feel about that group.


Learning about
intercultural
communication is
learning about cultural
patterns and identitiesyours and others’. Four
skills are important to
practice and develop:
 Practice
SelfReflexivity
 Learn about others
 Listen to the voices
of others
 Develop a sense of
Social Justice
Enhance your intercultural
communication learning experience!
Also available from the
esteemed author team…
Intercultural Communication:
A Reader, 14th Edition
Samovar/Porter/McDaniel/Roy
©2015 | ISBN-13: 978-1-285-07739-0
Intercultural Communication:
A Reader, explores how communi­
cation values and styles can vary
across cultures and communities,
providing a thorough introduction to current theory while outlining practical
strategies for more effective, culturally aware communication.
This broad-based and highly engaging reader, compiled by the authors who
­defined the course, includes a balanced selection of articles—some commis­­sioned solely for this text—that discuss the classic ideas that laid the ground­work for this field, as well as the latest research and ideas.
Order your copy today!
You can purchase this engaging reader and view additional
supplements for your course at www.cengagebrain.com
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Communication Between
CULTURES
NINTH EDITION
Larry A. Samovar
San Diego State University, Emeritus
Richard E. Porter
California State University, Long Beach, Emeritus
Edwin R. McDaniel
San Diego State University
Carolyn S. Roy
San Diego State University
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States
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Communication Between Cultures,
Ninth Edition
Larry A. Samovar; Richard E. Porter;
Edwin R. McDaniel; Carolyn S. Roy
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Brief Contents
Preface
xix
CHAPTER 1
Intercultural Communication: A Requirement for
the Interdependent Global Society
CHAPTER 2
Communication and Culture: The Voice and the Echo
25
CHAPTER 3
The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons from the Family
68
CHAPTER 4
Worldview: Cultural Explanations of Life and Death
103
CHAPTER 5
Cultural History: Precursor to the Present and Future
161
CHAPTER 6
Cultural Values: Road Maps for Behavior
198
CHAPTER 7
Culture and Identity: Situating the Individual
243
CHAPTER 8
Verbal Messages: Exchanging Ideas Through Language
265
CHAPTER 9
Nonverbal Communication: The Messages of Action, Space,
Time, and Silence
295
CHAPTER 10
Intercultural Communication in Contexts:
Applications in Business, Education, and Healthcare
339
CHAPTER 11
The Challenges of Intercultural Communication:
Managing Differences
380
Notes
Index
409
446
1
iii
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some thi …
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