1:InstructionsFor this assignment, you will assume the role of a researcher for a nonprofit that examines international juvenile justice systems and/or youth violence. The nonprofit has asked that you complete a profile of two countries (use two of those discussed in this unit).First, why do we study international juvenile justice and/or youth violence (at least one paragraph)?Second, select two countries that were discussed in this unit for comparison. Provide the following information in your discussion:Include the name of the country and an overview of it. You are encouraged to visit https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ for this information (at least two paragraphs for each country).Select a region by using the interactive map.Then, select the specific country you will include in your discussion.Include a summary of the juvenile justice or youth violence as identified in the lesson notes (at least one paragraph for each country).2:Utilizing the reading for this unit, discuss juvenile justice or youth violence in China, Brazil, Indonesia, Ireland, or Russia. How are juveniles managed as compared to adults? Your response must be a minimum of 200 words in length.
bcj2201_unitvii.pdf

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Unit VII: International
Juvenile Justice Systems
in Comparison to the
United States
Introduction
In this unit, you will learn and analyze the
importance of understanding how other
countries from around the world face the
challenges of juvenile delinquency,
prevention, and trends.
(Greyerbaby, 2014)
Introduction
• Each country has particular challenges when attempting to
deter and prevent juvenile delinquency.
• In this unit, we will discuss common international trends
facing many countries.
• You will also become familiar with the differences and
similarities of key juvenile justice systems.
The Beijing Rules
• Let’s being this unit by examining
the Beijing Rules.
(Peggy_Marco, 2006)
• By examining these rules, you will
have an example and a broader
knowledge and/or understanding
on how juveniles are treated in
comparison to the United States.
The Beijing Rules
• It is important to note throughout world history that not every
country perceived the humane treatment of prisoners as an
important element of their juvenile justice system.
• The definition of what is considered humane treatment is
often left up to the government of each country.
• However, the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the
Administration of Juvenile Justice, or the Beijing Rules, offer
some oversight and world standard to the humane treatment
of juveniles.
The Beijing Rules
The Beijing Rules
Member States shall seek, in
conformity with their respective
general interests, to further the
well-being of the juvenile and her
or his family (1.1).
(United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006)
Sufficient attention shall be given to
Member States shall endeavor to
positive
measures that involve the full
develop conditions that will
mobilization of all possible resources,
ensure for the juvenile a
including the family, volunteers and
meaningful life in the community,
other community groups, as well as
which, during that period in life
schools and other community
institutions, for the purpose of
when she or he is most
promoting
the well-being of the
susceptible to deviant behavior,
juvenile,
with
a view to reducing the
will foster a process of personal
need for intervention under the law, and
development and education that
of effectively, fairly and humanely
is as free from crime and
dealing with the juvenile in conflict with
delinquency as possible. (1.2)
the law. (1.3)
The Beijing Rules
The Beijing Rules
(continued)
Juvenile justice shall be
conceived as an integral part of
the national development
process of each country, within a
comprehensive framework of
social justice for all juveniles,
thus, at the same time,
contributing to the protection of
the young and the maintenance
of a peaceful order in society.
(1.4)
(United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006)
These Rules shall be
implemented in the context of
economic, social and cultural
conditions prevailing in each
Member State(1.5).
Juvenile justice services shall be
systematically developed and
coordinated with a view to
improving and sustaining the
competence of personnel
involved in the services,
including their methods,
approaches and attitudes (1.6).
International Juvenile Delinquency
• Now, after reviewing the basic human
standards for treatment of juvenile
delinquents, you will break down
international juvenile delinquency by
sections of the world.
(Maps-for-free, 2013)
• This will help you create a picture of how
different regions of the world experience
juvenile delinquency and the trends
associated with each region.
International Juvenile Delinquency
Learn more by accessing the following article.
(johnhain, 2016)
Bochenek, M. G. (2016, January 8). Children
behind bars. World Policy. Retrieved from
https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/01/08/c
hildren-behind-bars
European Region
• First, let’s examine the European region of the world.
• Europe has seen an increase in teen violence, and one of the
most startling issues facing Europe at the present moment is
the international sex trade of children and adolescents.
• Trafficking for sexual exploitation is more common in Europe,
and 27% of all victims detected globally are children (United
Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2012).
• The international sex trade of youth and adolescents is rising
at an alarming rate.
European Region
(Alexas_Fotos, 2016)
Learn more about juvenile justice in Germany. In
order to access the resource below, you must
first log into the myCSU Student Portal and
access the Academic OneFile database within
the CSU Online Library.
How a trip to Germany opened a governor’s eyes
on juvenile justice. (2015, November 10).
States News Service.
United Kingdom
• The juvenile justice system in England and Wales is somewhat
similar to the system in the United States.
• A child is defined as anyone who has not yet reached his or her
18th birthday (Blakeman, 2008).
• A youth court is responsible for the cases involving children.
These are less formal than adult courts and are private, not
allowing public access.
• However, a juvenile may be transferred to adult court and tried
as an adult.
United Kingdom (Cont.)
• Children may be held in a variety of facilities:
• secure children’s home,
• secure training centre, or
• young offender institution (Ministry of Justice, 2012).
• Those under 15 years of age are placed in a secure children’s
home.
• Those over 15 will be placed in either a secure training centre
or a young offender institution.
United Kingdom (Cont.)
• In Northern Ireland, the Youth Justice Agency (YJA) was
launched in 2003.
• Its goal is to make communities safer by providing resources so
that children stop offending.
• The YJA works with youths from the ages of 10 to 17
(Department of Justice, n.d.).
• They provide many services and partner with others to offer
services in order to “help children to address their offending
behaviour, divert them from crime, assist their integration into
the community and to meet the needs of victims of crime”
(Department of Justice, n.d., para. 4).
The Americas
• As you look into the juvenile justice issues in the Americas,
you will notice a trend of rising teen violence also.
• Could the rise of teen violence be a global trend?
• What would be the cause of this particular trend?
• How do the media (both mainstream and social) influence
the rise of teen violence around the world?
The Americas
• It should be no surprise to learn that in Mexico, violent crime is
considered one of the biggest problems—if not the biggest
problem—associated with criminal activity.
• Because Mexico has such a high violent crime rate associated
with drug cartels, it should also not surprise you that these
violent trends filters down from the adult population into the
juvenile population.
The Americas
• Drug cartels often use gangs to distribute drugs and
contraband.
• Mexican gangs, as in the United States, are mostly comprised
of teenagers and even younger children.
• Children and teenagers are impressionable at this age in life,
and social surroundings can often influence future criminal
behavior.
The Americas
• In Brazil, youth crime has increased in the past 10 years.
• Specifically, murder has increased 138% (Garcia-Navarro,
2013a).
• Some attribute the increase in youth crime to the economic
boom. In the past few years, prices on everything have
skyrocketed. A pizza may cost $30-$40 (Garcia-Navarro,
2013b).
Asia-Pacific Region
• Similar to the United States, the Asia-Pacific countries have
displayed growing concern for juvenile offenders, juvenile
victims, and juveniles who witness crime.
• Unfortunately, although reform initiatives have begun, the
lack of protection for juvenile rights still exists.
References
Alexas_Fotos. (2016, January). German flag [Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/flaggermany-flag-europe-german-1132796/
Blakeman, I. (2008). The youth justice system of England and Wales. Retrieved from
http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No78/No78_13VE_Blakeman.pdf
Department of Justice. (n.d.). About the Youth Justice Agency. Retrieved
https://www.dojni.gov.uk/articles/about-youth-justice-agency
Garcia-Navarro, L. (2013a). As youth crime spikes, Brazil struggles for answers. Retrieved from
http://www.npr.org/2013/04/30/180067497/as-youth-crime-spikes-brazil-struggles-foranswers
Garcia-Navarro, L. (2013b). In the wake of Brazil’s boom, prices to match. Retrieved from
http://www.npr.org/2013/04/12/176956307/in-the-wake-of-brazils-boom-prices-to-match
Greyerbaby. (2014). Boy looking through fence [Photograph]. Retrieved from
https://pixabay.com/en/boy-looking-fence-chain-link-young-529067/
References
johnhain. (2016, March). Forsaken-abandoned-lost-alone [Image]. Retrieved from
https://pixabay.com/en/forsaken-abandoned-lost-alone-1273885/
Maps-for-free. (2013, November 30). Relief map of the world [Image]. Retrieved from
https://pixabay.com/en/map-map-of-the-world-relief-map-221210/
Ministry of Justice. (2012). Young people (Juvenile Offenders). Retrieved from
https://www.justice.gov.uk/offenders/types-of-offender/juveniles
Peggy_Marco. (2006). Roof-China-dragon-forbidden city [Photograph]. Retrieved from
https://pixabay.com/en/roof-china-dragon-forbidden-city-1028392/
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2006). Juvenile justice: United Nations standard
minimum rules for the administration of juvenile justice (the Beijing Rules). Retrieved from
https://www.unodc.org/pdf/compendium/compendium_2006_part_01_02.pdf
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2012). Global report on trafficking in persons. Retrieved
from https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-andanalysis/glotip/Trafficking_in_Persons_2012_web.pdf

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