250-word (not including in-text citation and references as word count) count minimum with two scholarly sources in APA format. For the two scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other one from an outside source. Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give credit appropriately when using someone’s else work.How would you describe the ABC model of attitudes? How do Marketers change attitudes? What is guerrilla marketing and how can Marketers use social media to gain new customers?
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Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
B E H A
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2: n
o
s
1: Foundation vior
ha
of Consumer Be
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:
oc
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an n s u
d C mer
ultu s in Thei
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ral S
ettings
In
C o t e r n al I
nfl
nsu
mer Beuences
havior
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M E R
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3: Choosingducts
and Using Pro
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Section 3 Choosing and Using Products

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In Section 3 we look at how consumers think about products, theDsteps they use to choose
one, and what happens after we buy something. Chapter 8 focuses
Ron how we form feelings
and thoughts about products and how marketers influence us. In Chapter 9 we look at the
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steps we use to identify the best solution to a consumption problem. Chapter 10 highlights
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how factors at the time of purchase influence our choices and then what happens after
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we buy.
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C9 H A P
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Chapter 8 t
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T E R S A H E A D
Attitudes and Persuasive Communications
Chapter 9 t Decision Making
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Chapter 10 t Buying, Using, and Disposing
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Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 8 Attitudes and Persuasive
Communications
Chapter
Objectives

When you finish reading this chapter you will understand why:
8-1 It is important for consumer researchers to understand R
the nature and power of attitudes.
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We form attitudes in several ways.
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A need to maintain consistency among all of our attitudinalR
components often motivates us to alter one or more of them.
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Attitude models identify specific components and com,
bine them to predict a consumer’s overall attitude toward
8-2 Attitudes are more complex than they first appear.
8-3
8-4
8-5
a product or brand.
8-6 The communications model identifies several importantA
components for marketers when they try to change conD
sumers’ attitudes toward products and services.
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8-7 The consumer who processes a message is not the passive receiver of information marketers once believed him
or her to be.
8-8 Several factors influence the effectiveness of a message
source.
8-9 The way a marketer structures his or her message determines how persuasive it will be.
8-10 Many modern marketers are reality engineers.
8-11 Audience characteristics help to determine whether the
nature of the source or the message itself will be relatively more effective.
S
aundra is hanging out at the mall, idly texting
some friends about some stuff she saw in a few
stores. When she checks her Facebook page, she
sees several of them are chatting about their college application plans. She groans to herself; it’s starting already!
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She’s just starting her senior year of high school, and already
everybody’s thinking about what happens next year. Saundra
realizes it’s time to bite the bullet and really start to look into
this; her Mom will certainly be happy. But it’s all so confusing. She’s been getting bombarded with enticing ads and
brochures from so many different schools. They’re hard to
escape; some arrive by snail mail and others keep hitting her
with emails and texts. A few have invited her to take virtual
campus tours on their Web sites, and one even wants her
to enter a virtual world version of the campus as an avatar
Source: Blend Images/Corbis
to walk around and “talk” to current students. It’s amazing
but others play up their international programs, job placement programs, and even amenities (rock
climbing walls!). Of course, she’s familiar with some of the schools that are starting to court her, and
she already has a pretty good idea in her mind of what they’re about. But others feel like a blank
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Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
ISBN 1-323-46948-6
to see how different their pitches are, too. Sure, some universities tout their academic excellence,
CHAPTER 8
Attitudes and Persuasive Communications
slate; so far at least, she has absolutely no idea about what it would be like to be a student at these
schools. As Saundra starts to post some Facebook queries about where people are looking, she realizes it’s going to be an intense year.
OBJECTIVE 8-1
It is important for
consumer researchers to
understand the nature
and power of attitudes.
The Power of Attitudes
People use the term attitude in many contexts. A friend might ask
you, “What is your attitude toward abortion?” A parent might
scold, “Young man, I don’t like your attitude.” Some bars even
euphemistically refer to happy hour as “an attitude adjustment
period.” For our purposes, though, an attitude is a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements,
R or issues.1 We call
anything toward which one has an attitude an attitude object (Ao). As Saundra will
I we assimilate informalearn (and no doubt you did too) during her college search process,
tion from a variety of sources and often put a lot of effort into forming
C an attitude toward
many things, including a complex attitude object like a university.
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An attitude is lasting because it tends to endure over time. It is general because
it applies to more than a momentary event, such as hearing aRloud noise, though you
might, over time, develop a negative attitude toward all loud noises. Consumers have
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attitudes toward a wide range of attitude objects, from product-specific behaviors (e.g.,
, consumption-related
you use Crest toothpaste rather than Colgate) to more general,
behaviors (e.g., how often you should brush your teeth). Attitudes help to determine
whom you choose to date, what music you listen to, whether you will recycle alumiA
num cans, or whether you choose to become a consumer researcher
for a living. In
this chapter we’ll consider the contents of an attitude, howDwe form attitudes, and
how we measure them. We will also review some of the surprisingly complex relationR at how marketers can
ships between attitudes and behavior and then take a closer look
change these attitudes.
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Psychologist Daniel Katz developed the functional theory of attitudes to explain
E approach, attitudes
how attitudes facilitate social behavior.2 According to this pragmatic
exist because they serve some function for the person. ConsumersN
who expect that they will
need to deal with similar situations at a future time will be more likely to start to form an
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attitude in anticipation.3 Two people can each have an attitude toward some object for different reasons. As a result, it’s helpful for a marketer to know whyEan attitude is held before
he or she tries to change it. These are different attitude functions:
ISBN 1-323-46948-6
● Utilitarian function—The utilitarian function relates 2
to the basic principles of
reward and punishment we learned about in Chapter 4. We develop some attitudes to4
ward products simply because they provide pleasure or pain. If a person likes the taste
7 toward cheeseburgers.
of a cheeseburger, that person will develop a positive attitude
Ads that stress straightforward product benefits (e.g., you should
9 drink Diet Coke “just
for the taste of it”) appeal to the utilitarian function.
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● Value-expressive function—Attitudes that perform a value-expressive
function
relate to the consumer’s self-concept (Chapter 6) or central values
(Chapter
7). A perS
son forms a product attitude in this case because of what the product says about him
or her as a person. Value-expressive attitudes also are highly relevant to the psychographic analyses we discussed in Chapter 7, which consider how consumers cultivate
a cluster of activities, interests, and opinions to express a particular social identity.
● Ego-defensive function—Attitudes we form to protect ourselves either from external
threats or internal feelings perform an ego-defensive function. An early marketing
study showed that housewives resisted the use of instant coffee because it threatened
their conception of themselves as capable homemakers (this doesn’t seem to be a big
issue for most anymore!).4 Products that promise to help a man project a “macho” image (e.g., Marlboro cigarettes) appeal to his insecurities about his masculinity. Another
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Choosing and Using Products
example is deodorant ads that stress the dire, embarrassing consequences when you’re
caught with underarm odor in public.
● Knowledge function—We form some attitudes because we need order, structure,
or meaning. A knowledge function applies when a person is in an ambiguous situation (“it’s OK to wear casual pants to work, but only on Friday”) or when he or she
confronts a new product (e.g., “Bayer wants you to know about pain relievers”).
OBJECTIVE 8-2
Attitudes are more
complex than they first
appear.
The ABC Model of Attitudes
When Subaru of America began work on a new marketing strategy, the automaker discovered that even though most auto buyers
had heard of the brand, few had strong emotional connections to
it. However, current Subaru owners expressed strong passion and
Rramp up this emotional connection for non-owners as well,
even love for the brand. To
the new campaign targetsIpeople who are in three different stages of buying a car—what
Subaru calls the heart, the head, and the wallet. The heart stage focuses on the love that
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owners show for their cars; commercials share personal stories of their attachment. The
head stage ads, in contrast,
Apresent the rational side of specific models as they emphasize
how the cars benefit their owners in terms of reliability, economy, and so on. Then, the
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wallet ads deal with the financial details of actually buying a Subaru; these include special
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offers from local dealers.
Like the Subaru campaign, an attitude has three components: affect, behavior, and
,
cognition. As we saw in Chapter 5, affect describes how a consumer feels about an attitude object. Behavior refers to the actions he or she takes toward the object or in some
cases at least his or her intentions
to take action about it (but, as we will discuss at a later
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point, an intention does not always result in an actual behavior). Cognition is what he
D the attitude object. You can remember these three compoor she believes to be true about
nents of an attitude as theR
ABC model of attitudes.
The ABC model emphasizes the interrelationships among knowing, feeling, and
doing. We can’t determineI consumers’ attitudes toward a product if we just identify their
cognitions (beliefs) about E
it. For example, a researcher may find that shoppers “know”
a particular camcorder has a power zoom lens, auto focus, and a flying erase head, but
N indicate whether they feel these attributes are good, bad, or
simply knowing this doesn’t
irrelevant, or whether theyNwould actually buy the camcorder.
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Hierarchies of Effects
Which comes first: knowing, feeling, or doing? It turns out that each element may lead
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things off, depending on the situation. Attitude researchers developed the concept of a
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hierarchy of effects to explain
the relative impact of the three components. Each hierarchy specifies that a fixed7sequence of steps occur en route to an attitude. Figure 8.1 summarizes these three different hierarchies.
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The High-Involvement Hierarchy:
Think u Feel u Do
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The Low-Involvement Hierarchy: Think u Do u Feel
The low-involvement hierarchy of effects assumes that the consumer initially doesn’t
have a strong preference for one brand over another; instead, he or she acts on the basis of
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
ISBN 1-323-46948-6
The high-involvement hierarchy assumes that a person approaches a product decision as a problem-solvingSprocess. First, he or she forms beliefs about a product as she
accumulates knowledge (beliefs) regarding relevant attributes. Next, he or she evaluates
these beliefs and forms a feeling about the product (affect).6 Then he or she engages in a
relevant behavior, such as when he or she buys a product that offers the attributes he or
she feels good about. This hierarchy assumes that a consumer is highly involved when he
or she makes a purchase decision (see Chapter 5).7 He or she is motivated to seek out a lot
of information, carefully weigh alternatives, and come to a thoughtful decision.
CHAPTER 8
Attitudes and Persuasive Communications
Figure 8.1 THREE HIERARCHIES OF EFFECTS
HIGH INVOLVEMENT
Cognition
Affect
Behavior
ATTITUDE
Based on
cognitive
information
processing
Affect
ATTITUDE
Based on
behavioral
learning
processes
LOW INVOLVEMENT
Cognition
Behavior
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EXPERIENTIAL
I
ATTITUDE
Based on
Affect
Behavior
Cognition C
hedonic
consumption
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limited knowledge and forms an evaluation only after he or she has bought the product.8
,
The attitude is likely to come about through behavioral learning, as good or bad experiences reinforce his or her initial choice.
The possibility that consumers simply don’t care enough
A about many decisions
to carefully assemble a set of product beliefs and then evaluate them is important.
D beliefs and carefully
This implies that all of our well-intentioned efforts to influence
communicate information about product attributes may fall on
R deaf ears. Consumers
aren’t necessarily going to pay attention anyway; they are more likely to respond to
I decisions. For examsimple stimulus–response connections when they make purchase
ple, a consumer who chooses among paper towels might remember
E that “Bounty is the
quicker picker-upper” rather than systematically comparing all the brands on the shelf.
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Get a life!
The notion of consumers’ low involvement is a bitter pill forNsome marketers to swallow. Who wants to admit that what they market is not important to the people who buy
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it? A brand manager for, say, a brand of bubble gum or cat food may find it hard to believe
that consumers don’t put that much thought into purchasing the product because he or
she spends many waking (and perhaps sleeping) hours thinking about it.
2
For marketers, the ironic silver lining to this low-involvement cloud is that under
4 complex, brand-related
these conditions, consumers are not motivated to process a lot of
information. Instead, they will be swayed by principles of behavioral learning, such as the
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simple responses that conditioned brand names or point-of-purchase displays elicit (as we
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discussed in Chapter 4).
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S basis of our emotional
According to the experiential hierarchy of effects, we act on the
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The Experiential Hierarchy: Feel u Do u Think
reactions. The experiential perspective highlights the idea that intangible product attributes, such as package design, advertising, brand names, and the nature of the setting in
which the experience occurs, can help shape our attitudes toward a brand. We may base
these reactions on hedonic motivations, such as whether using the product is exciting like
the Nintendo Wii or aesthetically pleasing like the Apple iPhone.
Even the emotions the communicator expresses have an impact. A smile is infectious; in a process we term emotional contagion, messages that happy people deliver
enhance our attitude toward the product.9 Numerous studies demonstrate that the
mood a person is in when he or she sees or hears a marketing message influences how he
or she will process the ad, the likelihood that he or she will remember the information he
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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This ad for New York’s famous Smith &
Wollensky restaurant emphasizes that
marketers and others associated with a
product or service are often more involved
with it than are their customers.
Source: Courtesy of Smith & Wollensky Steak
House.
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Product design and other aesthetic
attributes helps to influence attitudes when
consumers choose on the basis of their
emotional reactions.
Source: Rob Cousins/Alamy.
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Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Twelfth Edition, by Michael R. Solomon. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 8
Attitudes and Persuasive Communications
or she sees, and how he or she will feel about the advertised item and related products in
the future.
Researchers continue to debate whether cognition and affect are independent or
linked when we form attitudes based on hedonic consumption. The cognitive-affective
model proposes that an emotional reaction is just the last step in a series of cognitive
processes that follows sensory recognition of a stimulus and retrieval of information from
memory that helps to categorize it. In contrast the independence hypothesis argues
that affect and cognition are separate systems so that it’s not always necessary to have a
cognition to elicit an emotional response. This perspective focuses more on the impact of
aesthetic experiences as opposed to the consumption of products that provide primarily
functional benefits. 10
OBJECTIVE 8-3
We form attitudes in
several ways.
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How Do We Form Attitudes?
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We all have lots of attitudes, and we don’t usually question how
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we got them. Certainly, you’re not born with the heartfelt conviction that, say, Pepsi is better than Coke, orAthat emo music liberates
the soul. From where do these attitudes come?
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We form an attitude in several different ways, depending on the particular hierarchy
of effects that operates. As we saw in Chapter 4, we simply may D
form an attitude toward a
brand as a result of classical conditioning: A marketer repeatedly pairs an attitude object
,
such as the Pepsi name with a catchy jingle (“You’re in the Pepsi Generation”). Or we can
form an attitude because of instrumental conditioning: The marketer reinforces us when
we consume the attitude object (e.g., you take a swig of Pepsi and
Ait quenches your thirst).
Finally, this learning can result from a complex cognitive process. For example, teenagers
may model the behavior of friends and media endorsers, such asD
Beyoncé, who drink Pepsi
because they believe that this will allow them to fit in with the desirable
R lifestyle that Pepsi
commercials portray.
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All Attitudes Are Not Created Equal
It’s important to distinguish among types of attitudes becauseN
not all form in the same
way.11 One consumer may be highly brand-loyal; she has an enduring,
N deeply held positive
attitude toward an attitude object, and it would be difficult to weaken this involvement.
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However, another woman may be a more fickle consumer: She may have a mildly positive
attitude toward a product but be quite willing to abandon it when something better comes
along. In this section, we’ll consider the differences between strongly and weakly held
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attitudes and briefly review some of the major theoretical perspectives researchers use to
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explain how attitudes form and relate to our other attitudes.
Consumers vary in their commitment to an attitude; the degree
7 of commitment relates
to their level of involvement with the attitude object (see Chapter 5).12 Let’s look at three
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(increasing) levels of commitment:
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1 Compliance—At the lowest level of involvement, compliance, we form an attitude
Sattitude is superficial; it
because it helps us to gain rewards or avoid punishment. Thi …
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