Answer the questions at the end of each document with as much information as you can glean from your readings.Just to be clear.
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JOHN SMITH AND POWHATAN
FROM Discourse (1609)
The Virginia Company moved quickly to plant a colony within the territory granted
to it after receiving its charterfrom King James I in 1606. Within a year
approximately a
hundred men, called adventurers encompassing artisans, soldiers, gentlemen, and
a fewfarmers, sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and in May 1607 established a fort
and plantation—a term that meant “settlement” to them—offof the Chesapeake
Bay, They named both the river and their small settlement after their monarch
instead ofadopting the names in use by those already there. Naming signaled taking
possession,
Captain John Smith, admitted to the colony’s governing council in June 1607 and
then elected its president in thefall of 1608, strove to control the adventurers and
subordinate the Native Americans. Powhatan (Wahunsonacock), the paramount chief
(mamanatowick) ofthe Powhatan Chiefdom that encompassed hundreds of miles and
about thirty tribes, including the Pamunkey, Chickahominy, and Mattaponi,
however, expected the newcomers to acknowledge his authority and respect his
people’s property and privileges.
From, ed., “The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia,” in Captain John Smith:
Writings with Other Narratives of Roanoke, Jamestown, and the First English Settlement of
America (New York: Library of America, 2007), pp. 83—84, [Editorial insertions appear in
square brackets—Ed,]
The king having attentively listned to this
discourse; promised, that both hee and his Country
would spare him what they could, the which within
2 daies, they should receave.
Powhatans reply and flattery,
Captaine Smithes discourse
to Powhatan.
Powhatan, though I had many courses to have made
my provision, yet beleeving your promises to supply
my wants, I neglected all, to satisfie your desire, and to
testifie my love, I sent you my men for your build ing,
neglecting my owner what your people had you have
engrossed, forbidding them our trade, and nowe you
thinke by consuming the time, wee shall con- sume for
want, not having to fulfill your strange demandes. As
for swords, and gunnes, I told you long agoe, I had
none to spare. And you shall knowes those I have, can
keepe me from want, yet steale, or wrong you I will
not, nor dissolve that friendship, wee have mutually
promised, except you constraine mee by your bad
usage.
Yet Captaine Smith, (saith the king) some doubt I have
of your comming hither, that makes me not so kindly
seeke to relieve you as I would; for many do informe
me, your comming is not for trade, but to invade my
people and possesse my Country, who dare not come
to bring you corne, seeing you thus armed with your
men, To cleere us of this feare, leave abord your
weapons, for here they are needlesse we being all
friends and for ever Powhatans,
With many such discourses they spent the day,
quartring that night in the kings houses. The next
day . ,
Whilst we expected the comming in ofthe
countries we wrangled out ofthe king 10 quarters
ofcorne for a copper kettle. . . . Wherewith each
seeming well contented; Powhatan began to
expostulate the difference betwixt peace and war,
after this manner.
PAUL LE JEUNE AND JEROME LALEMANT: PROM The Jesuit Relations (1640)
Powhatans discourse of
peace and warre.
9
what I want, being your friend; then bee forced to flie
from roots, al, and to such lie cold trash, in and the be woods, so hunted feed
upon by you, acorns,that I
can neither rest, eat, nor sleepe; but my tired men Captaine
Smith you may understand, that I,’ having must watch, and if a twig but breake, everie one crie seene the death of all my people
thrice, and not one there comes Captaine Smith, then must I flie I knowe living of those 3 generations, but my selfe, I knowe
the not whether, and thus with miserable feare end my difference of peace and warre, better then any in my miserable life;
leaving my pleasures to such youths as Countrie. But now I am old, and ere long must die, my you, which through your rash
unadvisednesse, may brethren, namely Opichapam, Opechankanough, and quickly as miserably ende, for want of that you
never Kekataugh, my two sisters, and their two daughters, knowe how to find? Let this therefore assure you of are distinctly
each others successours, I wish their our loves and everie yeare our friendly trade shall furexperiences no lesse then mine, and
your love to nish you with corne, and now also if you would come them, no lesse then mine to you; but this brute [infor- in
friendly manner to see us, and not thus with your mation bruited about] from Nansamund that you are gunnes and swords, as
to invade your foes. come to destroy my Countrie, so much affrighteth all my people, as they dare not visit you; what will it
availe you, to take that perforce, you may quietly have with
love, or to destroy them that provide you food?
what can you get by war, when we can hide our provision
and flie to the woodes, whereby you must famish
by wronging us your friends; and whie are you thus
jealous of our loves, seeing us unarmed, and both doe,
and are willing still to feed you with that you cannot
get but by our labours? think you I am so simple not
to knowe, it is better to eate good meate, lie well, and
sleepe quietly with my women and children, laugh
and be merrie with you, have copper, hatchets, or
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What did Smith accuse Powhatan of doing?
Was his message a promise or a warning?
2. What suspicions did Powhatan have of Smith?
3. How did Powhatan try to promote peace? Was
his message a promise or a warning?
4. What does this exchange reveal about both
leaders and the relations between their peoples?
PAUL LE JEUNE AND JEROME LALEMANT
FROM The Jesuit Relations (1640)
The Jesuit priests Paul Le Jeune and Jerome Lalemant were missionaries to the native peoples in the
territories claimed by France. In the Relation of 1640, Father Le Jeune reportedfrom Quebec while
Father Lalemant correspondedfrom the mission among the Hurons. These highly educated and
dedicated men, along with Other missionaries, learned the languages and gained an understanding of
the cultures Of the native peoples as they lived among them and worked to convert them to
Christianity. They wrote extensively of their experiences among theAlgonquin and Iroquoian
peoples. While the missionaries expressed some appreciation of certain aspects of native cultures,
such as a lack of avariciousness, they did not see the

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