1.One of the key things that needs to be considered in a merger or acquisition is how the two companies will manage the process of “combining” (or not) the two corporate cultures. Review the lecture slides for Chapter 14 posted to Canvas under Week1 about the importance of a bi-cultural audit and strategies for managing organizational culture during a merger/acquisition. Also review the 3 articles posted under Week 1–“WhyTony Hsieh Sold Zappos” , “Inside Amazon” , and “Zappos CEO Distances”. a) Given the Competing Values Framework in your text and the readings posted, how would you describe the corporate culture of Zappos as compared to the corporate culture of Amazon? Why do you say this (provide examples/evidence to back up your answer)?b) In 2009, Amazon acquired Zappos, how was the “marriage” of the two corporate cultures handled? How well does this arrangement appear to be working? Do you have any concerns about Zappos’ ability to maintain its culture going forward?c) Given Amazon’s recent purchase of Whole Foods, how do you think that this will impact the corporate culture of Whole Foods? Do some research and provide some evidence to support your answer.2.Given the Time Magazine article (“How High is Your XQ?”) on personality testing posted to Canvas under Week 2:a) What appear to be the trends in how companies are utilizing data analytics and personality testing for employment?b) The article cites advantages and disadvantages of using these. What are these and what your thoughts about this?3.This question has two parts.a) With regard to the article “On the Folly of A While Hoping for B” posted to Canvas under Week 3 , what can be learned about problems with reward systems and how they are designed? Which example did you like the best and why? How can organizations learn/benefit from this?b) Please paste the following link into your browser and watch the Ted Talk by DanPink on motivation and rewards. What does Dan argue that companies should focus on when attempting to motivate employees and why? Do you agree with his views? Why/why not? How is this similar or different from job enrichment?
kiniob2e_c14_final_r.pptx

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CHAPTER 14
Organizational
Culture,
Socialization, and
Mentoring
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Major Questions You Should
Be Able to Answer
14.1 What is culture and why is it helpful to understand its
layers and functions?
14.2 How are different types of organizational culture related to
outcomes?
14.3 What mechanisms or levers can I use to implement culture
change?
14.4 How can I integrate the findings of socialization research
with the three phases of socialization?
14.5 How can I use mentoring to foster personal and
professional success?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Culture
The set of shared, taken-for-granted, implicit assumptions that a
group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about,
and reacts to its various environments
• Shared concept
• Learned over time
Four Characteristics of
Organizational Culture:
• Influences our behavior at
work
• Impacts outcomes at
multiple levels
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Drivers and Flow of Organizational Culture
Jump to Appendix 1 for description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Three Levels of Organizational Culture
Observable artifacts
• The physical manifestation of an organization’s culture
Espoused versus enacted values
• Espoused values: explicitly stated values and norms that are
preferred by an organization
• Enacted values: values and norms that are actually exhibited or
converted into employee behavior
Basic underlying assumptions
• Organizational values that have become taken for granted
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Four Functions of Organizational Culture
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Test Your OB Knowledge (1 of 4)
Which level of organizational culture is the hardest to
change?
A. artifacts
B. transactional
C. enacted values
D. espoused values
E. basic underlying assumptions
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Competing Values Framework
This gives us four types of organizational culture, each with different core values and different
sets of criteria for assessing organizational effectiveness.
Jump to Appendix 2 for description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Organizational Culture
Clan (Collaborate)



Internal focus, flexibility valued
rather than stability and control
Achieving effectiveness by
encouraging collaboration, trust, and
support
Adhocracy (Create)

External focus and flexibility valued

Creation of new products and
services

Culture adaptable, creative, and fast
to respond to the marketplace
Employee-focused
Hierarchy (Control)
Market (Compete)

Internal focus, formalized and
structured work environment

Strong external focus and stability
and control valued

Stability and control valued over
flexibility

Competition

Strong desire to deliver results and
accomplish goals

Efficiency, timeliness, and reliability
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Outcomes Associated with
Organizational Culture
• Organizational culture is related to measures of organizational
effectiveness.
• Employees are more satisfied and committed to organizations
with clan cultures.
• Innovation and quality can be increased by building
characteristics associated with clan, adhocracy, and market
cultures.
• Financial performance is not strongly related to organizational
culture.
• Market cultures tend to have more positive organizational
outcomes.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Subcultures
Often not a single homogeneous culture
Rather, multiple subcultures that either intensify the
existing cultural understanding and practices or diverge
from them
Subcultures often form around:
• Functional or occupational groups or work roles
• Divisions or departments
• Geographical areas
• Products, markets, technology
• Levels of management
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Test Your OB Knowledge (2 of 4)
Jane works in an organization where quality and
efficiency are highly valued. This organization’s culture
is likely
A. hierarchy.
B. adhocracy.
C. goal-driven.
D. clan.
E. market.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Process of Culture Change
Four truths about culture change
1. Leaders are the architects and developers of organizational
change.
2. Changing culture starts with one of the three levels of
organizational culture: artifacts, espoused values, basic
underlying assumptions.
3. Consider how closely the current change aligns with the
organization’s vision and strategic plan.
4. Use a structured approach when implementing culture
change.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (1 of 5)
Formal statements
Design of physical space
Using formal statements of:
• Organizational philosophy
Physical spacing among people
and buildings
• Mission
Location of office furniture
• Vision
E.g., open office or flexspace
• Values
• Materials used for recruiting
Represent visible artifacts
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (2 of 5)
Slogans, language, acronyms,
and sayings
Role modeling, training,
coaching
• Often powerful forces for cultural
change
Structure training to provide an indepth introduction about
organizational values and basic
underlying assumptions
• Easy to remember
Explicit rewards, status
symbols
• Strong impact on employees due
to highly visible and meaningful
nature
• Strongest way to embed culture
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Stories, legends, or myths
Powerful way to send messages
about values and behaviors that are
desired
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (3 of 5)
Organizational activities
and processes
Leader reactions to
critical incidents
• Leaders pay attention to
those activities they can
measure and control
• People learn and pay
attention to emotions
exhibited by leaders.
• These can send messages to
employees about
acceptable norms
• Positive emotions spread.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• Negative emotions travel
faster and further.
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (4 of 5)
Rites and rituals
Workflow and
organizational structure
• Planned and unplanned
activities and ceremonies
• Hierarchical structure versus
flatter organizations
• Used to celebrate important
events or achievements
• Reducing organizational
layers
• Empower employees and
increase employee
involvement
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (5of 5)
Organizational systems and procedures and
organizational goals
Reflected in how an organization manages
• Communication
• Promotion
• Recruitment
• Layoffs
• Selection
• Retirements
• Development
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Test Your OB Knowledge (3 of 4)
Jackson Electronics would like to change their
organizational culture to emphasize clan culture. Jackson
should use all of the following methods EXCEPT
A. develop training programs to teach the underlying
assumption of clan culture.
B. have leaders keep information about negative events
from employees.
C. change the office structure to allow space for
employees to collaborate and communicate.
D. develop group and team reward systems.
E. celebrate employee accomplishments and life events.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Organizational Socialization Process (1 of 4)
What is organizational socialization?
The process by which a person learns the values, norms, and
required behaviors which permit them to participate as a
member of an organization
The three-phase model of organizational socialization
• Anticipatory socialization
• Encounter
• Change and acquisition
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Organizational Socialization Process (2 of 4)
Phase 1: Anticipatory
socialization
Occurs before an individual actually
joins an organization
Information learned about careers
and organizations
Learned from:
• Current employees
• Social media
• Internet
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Realistic job previews: mitigate
unrealistic expectations formed
during this phase
Higher performance
Lower quit rates
The Organizational Socialization Process (3 of 4)
Phase 2: Encounter
• Employees come to learn
what the organization is
really like.
• Organizations use
onboarding programs.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Phase 3: Change and
acquisition
Employees master important
tasks and roles and adjust to
their group’s values and
norms.
The Organizational Socialization Process (4 of 4)
What research tells us
• Effective onboarding programs result in increased retention, productivity,
and rates of task completion for new hires.
• Many organizations use socialization tactics to reinforce a culture that
promotes ethical behavior.
• Managers need to help new hires integrate with the culture to overcome
stress associated with a new environment.
• Support for the stage model is mixed, different techniques are appropriate
for different people at different times.
• Managers should pay attention to the socialization of diverse employees.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Mentoring and Embedding
Organizational Culture
Mentoring is the process of forming and maintaining
intensive and lasting developmental relationships
between a variety of developers and a junior person.
Occurs over four phases
1. Initiation
2. Cultivation
3. Separation
4. Redefinition
©McGraw-Hill Education.
General Functions of the Mentoring Process
Career related
Psycho-social related
• Sponsorship
• Role modeling
• Exposure and visibility
• Acceptance and
confirmation
• Coaching
• Protection
• Challenging assignments
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• Counseling
• Friendship
Building Your Social Capital
A broad developmental network aids career success.
Consistency and congruence between personal career
goals and your developmental network boosts job and
career satisfaction.
Develop a mentoring plan
• Make it goal driven.
• Seek out those experienced in the areas in which you
want to improve.
• What value will you bring to the relationship?
• Know when to move on.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Test Your OB Knowledge (4 of 4)
All of the following are benefits of the RJP (realistic job
preview) process EXCEPT
A. leads to higher job performance.
B. leads to lower turnover.
C. provides a clearer picture of actual job expectations.
D. employees may not accept a position after learning
about the negative aspects of the job.
E. All these are benefits of RJP.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Culture, Socialization and
Mentoring: Putting It All in Context
Figure 14.8 Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying Organizational Behavior
Jump to Appendix 3 for description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Copyright 2014 Angelo Kinicki and Mel Fugate. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without permission of the authors.
MNGT 56035
Midterm Exam
Spring 2019
Peluchette
Please prepare a Word document and provide written responses to the following questions.
Draw on text material and course readings to support your answers. Submit it via the TurnItIn
link provided in the class Canvas site under Week 4. Be sure that your name is on the document.
20 points each
1. One of the key things that needs to be considered in a merger or acquisition is how the
two companies will manage the process of “combining” (or not) the two corporate
cultures. Review the lecture slides for Chapter 14 posted to Canvas under Week1 about
the importance of a bi-cultural audit and strategies for managing organizational culture
during a merger/acquisition. Also review the 3 articles posted under Week 1 –“Why
Tony Hsieh Sold Zappos”, “Inside Amazon”, and “Zappos CEO Distances”.
a) Given the Competing Values Framework in your text and the readings posted, how
would you describe the corporate culture of Zappos as compared to the corporate
culture of Amazon? Why do you say this (provide examples/evidence to back up your
answer)?
b) In 2009, Amazon acquired Zappos, how was the “marriage” of the two corporate
cultures handled? How well does this arrangement appear to be working? Do you
have any concerns about Zappos’ ability to maintain its culture going forward?
c) Given Amazon’s recent purchase of Whole Foods, how do you think that this will
impact the corporate culture of Whole Foods? Do some research and provide some
evidence to support your answer.
2. Given the Time Magazine article (“How High is Your XQ?”) on personality testing
posted to Canvas under Week 2:
a) What appear to be the trends in how companies are utilizing data analytics and
personality testing for employment?
b) The article cites advantages and disadvantages of using these. What are these and
what your thoughts about this?
3. This question has two parts.
a) With regard to the article “On the Folly of A While Hoping for B” posted to Canvas
under Week 3, what can be learned about problems with reward systems and how
they are designed? Which example did you like the best and why? How can
organizations learn/benefit from this?
b) Please paste the following link into your browser and watch the Ted Talk by Dan
Pink on motivation and rewards. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y
What does Dan argue that companies should focus on when attempting to motivate
employees and why? Do you agree with his views? Why/why not? How is this similar
or different from job enrichment?

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