1 What impact did the disarmament conferences, congressional hearings, political group memberships, and peace movements of the 1920s and 1930s have on the U.S. military in the wake of war? Your response should be at least 500 words in length2. How successful was the United States in implementing aviation as a weapon of war in its military arsenal during the period 1919 to 1940? Explain. In your response, be sure to identify the technological advances of military aviation in the early 20th century that aided in this success.Your response should be at least 500 words in length.



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Military Policy Between the Two
World Wars, 1919-1939
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Describe the impact of U.S. presidential decrees and doctrines on military policy.
1.1 Identify the meanings and memberships of political groups that emerged in the wake of
international conflict.
1.2 Describe the outcomes of multinational hearings and conferences in the wake of war.
2. Summarize the impact of technological advances pertaining to modern warfare on the role of the U.S.
2.1 Identify the technological advances of military aviation in the early 20th century.
2.2 Compare the impact of aviation between the end of World War I and the beginning of World
War II.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 12: Military Policy Between the Two World Wars, 1919-1939
Additional Reading Assignment(s):
In order to access the following resource, click the link below:
The following video has a run time of 28 min., 50 sec., but it is broken into 15 segments for easy viewing and
note taking:
National Archives & Records Administration (Producer). (2008). The big picture: Fifty years of aviation [Video
file]. Retrieved from
Unit Lesson
The United States and its military had been unprepared for World War I, and civilian and military leaders were
determined that that not happen again. Starting with the postwar conferences and hearings, a reworking of
the military command structure, an evaluation of the place of technology in the military, and a new
procurement system were the immediate points of focus to insure the United States. could protect itself and
its new allies in the coming decades.
Other challenges faced the military as well. The hangover of World War I and the neglect of the League of
Nations by the U.S. Senate encouraged the world’s naval powers to bypass the league and set limits on
warship class and tonnage several times through the 1920s and early 1930s. Foremost among the obstacles
faced by the U.S. was the Great Depression. The 1930s were a time of retrenchment rather than expansion in
the American economy, and, necessarily, the military was a target of reformers. It would need to become
smarter, become more diverse, become more powerful, and be prepared to defend on all fronts.
It would be no simple task to define the status of the military at war’s end. In the first place, the United States
was now truly a world power and the only major economy in the world not devastated by the Great War. What
role the military should play in this new world was open to debate. Many still believed the oceans that
surrounded the nation were vulnerable, and the Navy was given priority as a result. Secondly, the Great War
had been an unsatisfying experience for the American public. Many, especially those of recent European
HY 2020, American Military History II
immigration, had been opposed to entry in the war in the first place, and a national
lobbied hard against the war from the start.
Though the postwar peace negotiations at Versailles had fostered great hope and the establishment of the
League of Nations promised no more war, an isolationist push among American conservatives disallowed the
United States from joining in the peace movement until 1923 (or the league at all). Many Americans were very
tired of war, and this was reflected in their attitudes toward the military. If the world was generally at peace
and the League of Nations was in place to reduce the likelihood of war, why, asked many, would the United
States want a large, active military?
Another disquieting event that plagued the view of the military was the demobilization necessary at war’s end,
which released nearly 3.25 million men back into the workforce. Despite a lack of advanced planning, this
influx of workers did not dramatically threaten the economy; however, the ending of wartime did result in a
period of economic recession, forcing some companies that had been instrumental in wartime production to
fall into bankruptcy.
Culturally, the prospect of a large-standing army was anathema to the American public. Added to this, there
were also practical economic reasons for the call to demobilize and downsize the defense budget because it
was expensive to maintain and expensive to demobilize. By the end of 1919, the standing U.S. Army was
reduced to its more traditional and relatively small volunteer force.
This drastically diminished operation would be stretched thin in the coming years. The military was asked to
patrol the Mexican border due to the fear of prewar hostilities rising again. The military also served as
occupation forces in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere in Europe until the separate American peace was signed
in 1923, and it was routinely called upon to put down strikes and quell various domestic conflagrations.
Garrisons were also posted in Hawai’i and the Canal Zone in Panama.
The deadliest post in the early 1920s was that which occupied Murmansk in the west and Vladivostok in the
east of the new Soviet Union. The latter event, often referred to as the Great Siberian Expedition, was part of
a multinational force in which 15,000 American soldiers supported local Russian forces opposed to the
socialist regime there. The mission was an abject failure and a diplomatic black eye that would continue to
cause stress between the nations for decades.
The most immediate strategic threat in the 1920s was seen as Imperial Japan—now the dominant power in
the Pacific. With the hopes of balancing power between naval powers in both oceans—as a two ocean war
was now a possibility—the U.S. State Department sponsored the Washington Conferences beginning in
1921. A number of essential naval and diplomatic treaties evolved from these. These ultimately formed what
was called the “treaty navy” and tended to fully satisfy none of their signatories, a mark of successful
diplomacy. In reality, the powers in Washington were, in the form of these treaties, attempting to ensure the
next war would be a fair fight.
Another important change came with the National Defense Act of 1920. Building on the National Defense Act
of 1916, this new act was hastily written with war on the horizon, and it reorganized the military to better
reflect potential threats. Your textbook expertly outlines the basic changes and examines alterations made in
the status and use of the National Guard and the military’s relationship with the Reserve Officers’ Training
Corps (or the ROTC). This act also allowed the new Army Air Corps (whose history is chronicled in the video
series The Big Picture: Fifty Years of Aviation) to become a focal point of great controversy; as its champion,
Army General William “Billy” Mitchell pushed and proved the value of air power. A similar debate took place
regarding the place of submarines in the national defense system. The military was redefining itself as a result
of its world war experience.
Perhaps the most overlooked (and arguably most important) change established in the National Defense Act
was the creation of the Army Industrial College. This implicitly acknowledged the importance of industrial
mobilization and logistical training for the conduct of modern warfare. This, as much as any front-line navy,
air, or submarine corps, signaled acknowledgement that the U.S. could not be as underprepared for war as it
had been before the last; thus, a policy of constant readiness took shape. This institution was charged with
educating officers for the procurement division in the War Department and planning demobilizations that did
not harm suppliers, as happened after World War I.
HY 2020, American Military History II
When Douglas MacArthur became Chief of Staff in 1931, the Great Depression
firm gripGUIDE
on the
economy, which led to budgets falling. MacArthur made the priorities of the War
Department modernization
and training, and it worked! During World War II, more than 90% of the Army Industrial College procurement
recommendations went to firms surveyed in the 1920s and 1930s by the college (Gropman, 2008). War in the
20th century had become organized and total.
Among the tasks assigned to the U.S. Army during this period was the dispersing of the Bonus Marchers—
Great War veterans encamped outside Washington, DC, awaiting the benefits promised to them—and the
administration of the Civilian Conservation Corp camps, a job creation program within the New Deal.
World events, many driven by depression, continued to vex military policy through the 1930s. As a second
World War steadily approached in Europe through the mid-1930s, beginning with Hitler’s Germany
renouncing the Versailles Treaty, Britain worked hard to gain U.S. support. In 1936, Japan renounced its
adherence to all treaty limitations and invaded Manchuria the following year. In 1939, war came to Europe
with British and French defense of Poland, and the U.S. began to increase the strength of its air corps and
build a military to lend and lease to the western Allies.
The massive military potential of the United States was recognized by Japan and Germany, as was the
reticence of the American public to go back to war. The hangover of the Great War and of the Great
Depression was strong. The president realized mobilization was necessary, and the U.S. Army and Navy
were as prepared as they could be to fight the war civilian and military leadership expected, but that was not
the war that came.
Gropman, A. L. (2008, January). Industrial college of the armed forces: A primer. National Defense. Retrieved
from http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2008/January/Pages/Industrial2383.aspx
Suggested Reading
In order to access the following resources, click the links below:
The following article gives a perspective on flight training offered to pilots in 1918.
Caro, J. J. (2016). Training combat pilots on North Island. Aviation History, 27(2), 44-47. Retrieved from
The following article offers an overview of the League of Nations.
Henig, R. (2010). A league of its own. History Today, 60(2), 3-4. Retrieved from
The following article looks at issues surrounding the aftermath of the sinking of the Lusitania.
Peifer, D. (2015). The sinking of the Lusitania, Wilson’s response, and paths not taken: Historical revisionism,
the Nye Committee, and the ghost of William Jennings Bryan. Journal of Military History, 79(4), 10251045. Retrieved from
The following article discusses use of aircraft from Douglas Aircraft company.
Polmar, N. (2011) Historic aircraft. Naval History, 25(6), 64-65. Retrieved from
HY 2020, American Military History II
Strategic Management Concepts: A
Competitive Advantage Approach
Sixteenth Edition
Chapter 5
Strategies in Action
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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
5.1 Identify and discuss eight characteristics of objectives and
ten benefits of having clear objectives.
5.2 Define and give an example of eleven types of strategies.
5.3 Identify and discuss the three types of “Integration
5.4 Give specific guidelines when market penetration, market
development, and product development are especially
effective strategies.
5.6 Explain when diversification is an effective business
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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
5.6 List guidelines for when retrenchment, divestiture, and
liquidation are especially effective strategies.
5.7 Identify and discuss Porter’s five generic strategies.
5.8 Compare (a) cooperation among competitors, (b) joint
venture and partnering, and (c) merger/acquisition as key
means for achieving strategies.
5.9 Discuss tactics to facilitate strategies, such as (a) being
a first mover, (b) outsourcing, and (c) reshoring.
5.10 Explain how strategic planning differs in for-profit, notfor-profit, and small firms.
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Long-Term Objectives
• The results expected from pursuing certain strategies
• 2-to-5 year timeframe
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Table 5-1 Varying Performance Measures by
Organizational Level
Organizational Level Basis for Annual Bonus or Merit
75% based on long-term objectives
25% based on annual objectives
50% based on long-term objectives
50% based on annual objectives
25% based on long-term objectives
75% based on annual objectives
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Table 5-2 The Desired Characteristics of
1. Quantitative
2. Measurable
3. Realistic
4. Understandable
5. Challenging
6. Hierarchical
7. Obtainable
8. Congruent across departments
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The Nature of Long-Term Objectives
• Objectives
– provide direction
– allow synergy
– assist in evaluation
– establish priorities
– reduce uncertainty
– minimize conflicts
– stimulate exertion
– aid in both the allocation of resources and the design of
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Financial Versus Strategic Objectives
• Financial objectives include growth in revenues, growth
in earnings, higher dividends, larger profit margins, greater
return on investment, higher earnings per share, a rising
stock price, improved cash flow, and so on.
• Strategic objectives include a larger market share,
quicker on-time delivery than rivals, shorter design-tomarket times than rivals, lower costs than rivals, higher
product quality than rivals, wider geographic coverage than
rivals, achieving technological leadership, consistently
getting new or improved products to market ahead of
rivals, and so on.
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Not Managing by Objectives
• Managing by Extrapolation
• Managing by Crisis
• Managing by Subjectives
• Managing by Hope
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Figure 5-1 A Comprehensive StrategicManagement Model
Source: Fred R. David, “How Companies Define Their Mission,” Long Range Planning 22, no. 3 (June 1988): 40. See
also Anik Ratnaningsih, Nadjadji Anwar, Patdono Suwignjo, and Putu Artama Wiguna, “Balance Scorecard of David’s
Strategic Modeling at Industrial Business for National Construction Contractor of Indonesia,” Journal of Mathematics
and Technology, no. 4 (October 2010): 20.
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Types of Strategies
• Most organizations simultaneously pursue a combination
of two or more strategies, but a combination strategy can
be exceptionally risky if carried too far.
• No organization can afford to pursue all the strategies that
might benefit the firm.
• Difficult decisions must be made and priorities must be
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Table 5-4 Alternative Strategies Defined and
Exemplified (1 of 2)
Forward Integration
Gaining ownership or increased control
over distributors or retailers
Amazon began rapid delivery
services in some U.S. cities.
Backward Integration
Seeking ownership or increased
control of a firm’s suppliers
Starbucks purchased a coffee
Horizontal Integration
Seeking ownership or increased
control over competitors
BB&T acquired Susquehanna
Market Penetration
Seeking increased market share for
present products or services in present
markets through greater marketing
Under Armour signed tennis
champion Andy Murray to a 4year, $23 million marketing deal.
Market Development
Introducing present products or
services into new geographic area
Gap opened its first five stores
in China.
Product Development
Seeking increased sales by improving
present products or
services or developing new ones
Amazon just began offering its
own line of baby diapers and
Alternative Strategies Defined and Recent Examples Given
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Table 5-4 Alternative Strategies Defined and
Exemplified (2 of 2)
Related Diversification
Adding new but related products
or services
Facebook acquired the textmessaging firm WhatsApp for
$19 billion.
Unrelated Diversification
Adding new, unrelated products
or services
Kroger and Whole Foods
Market are cooking meals,
becoming restaurants.
Regrouping through cost and
asset reduction to reverse
declining sales and profit
Staples closed 250 stores and
reduced by 50% the size of
other stores.
Selling a division or part of an
Sears Holdings divested its
Land’s End division to Sears’
Selling all of a company’s
assets, in parts, for their
tangible worth
The Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic
City, New Jersey, faces
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Figure 5-2 Levels of Strategies with Persons
Most Responsible
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Integration Strategies
• Forward Integration
– involves gaining ownership or increased control over
distributors or retailers
• Backward Integration
– strategy of seeking ownership or increased control of a
firm’s suppliers
• Horizontal Integration
– a strategy of seeking ownership of or increased control
over a firm’s competitors
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Forward Integration Guidelines
• When an organization’s present distributors are especially
• When the availability of quality distributors is so limited as to
offer a competitive advantage
• When an organization competes in an industry that is growing
• When an organization has both capital and human resources to
manage distributing their own products
• When the advantages of stable production are particularly high
• When present distributors or retailers have high profit margins
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Backward Integration Guidelines
• When an organization’s present suppliers are especially
expensive or unreliable
• When the number of suppliers is small and the number of
competitors is large
• When the organization competes in a growing industry
• When an organization has both capital and human resources
• When the advantages of stable prices are particularly important
• When present suppliers have high profit margins
• When an organization needs to quickly acquire a needed
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Horizontal Integration Guidelines
• When an organization can gain monopolistic
characteristics in a particular area or region without being
challenged by the federal government
• When an organization competes in a growing industry
• W …
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