Based on the data collection plan developed in week 6, develop the data analysis and verification plan. Write a 4-page paper that includes the following:Research questionsSources of data: Refer to Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2006) in week-4 readings, and describe which of the data analysis steps outlined on page 491 and 492 (Figure 3) will be followed. Refer to Adams-Budde at al. (2014) in week 7 readings to describe how each source of data will be used in the analysis. Use other readings as models to discuss data integration procedures.Refer to articles provided in weeks 7 and 8 to discuss specific verification strategies for proposed data analysis: how will the issues of validity (quantitative data) and trustworthiness (qualitative data) be addressed? Make sure to cite articles from the readings to support your procedures. Think about design quality and interpretive rigor.Discuss limitations of the proposed data analysis plan and reflect on the potential theoretical and practical significance of your work.for example file Research Questions:1) Describe various purposes and how they could help graduate students in engaging in quality research using the combined methods of research design.2). Stateand explain crucial aspects which could determine the effectiveness the combined methods of research design.
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Introduction to the Data Analysis Plan
This research study is important to present and future graduate students and their experiences
within their graduate program, and how those experiences have impacted their opinions and
thoughts on research. With the integration of the research questions, data provided can help
future students, teachers, and program leaders to develop better program experiences with higher
outcomes. The study utilizes students enrolled in a Mixed Methods Research course at an Illinois
based University.
Research Questions
1) What are the perceptions of graduate students and how their professors have prepared them to
perform research?
2) What are students’ beliefs and perceptions about educational research?
Data Analysis
Prior to conducting the data analysis step, the researcher paid close attention to the process
outlined by Onwuegbuzie & Leech (2006). Purpose of the study, research objective and question,
rationale, selecting a sampling design (mixed method design), and collecting the data were all
addressed (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006). The researcher analyzed both forms of data separately
and independently and then used the data collected to answer the respective research questions.
A parallel mixed data analysis technique was utilized after data collection was completed. The
parallel mixed data analysis is likely the most utilized data analysis technique for MM research
according to Teddlie & Tashakkori (2009, p. 266). The process involves the
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QUAN analysis of data utilizing descriptive statistics and QUAL analysis using thematic
analysis (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009, p. 266). Inferences are then made based on the results
leading to a synthesized form or meta-inferences and conclusions generated through the
integration of inferences obtained by both strands of the study (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009, p.
266).
Quantitative Findings
The findings for the first phase and first research question were generated from analysis of
responses to a quantitative survey. The results tabulated and outlined below with each survey
question numerically presented in the order written (as discussed in the Data Plan) with the mean
indicated, following where on the likert scale each answer resides, and its respective standard
deviation indicating the dispersion or variance of responses from the (n = 48) respondents.
The mean score for Q1 indicates that the Post Grad Researchers (PGR) feel their instructors
make a real effort to support their research and agree this is true. The standard deviation (SD)
indicates there is little variance across the responses indicating a tight dispersion of results. For
Q2, the response is very similar to the response in Q1, in that PGR agree and feel their
instructors understand difficulties they are facing in their experience, again the SD indicates little
dispersion or a tight grouping of answers from the respondents. Q3 indicates a neutral feeling,
indicating neither strongly agreeing or strongly disagreeing on whether instructors have given
good guidance in topic selection and refinement. The SD again indicates a tight grouping of
responses which indicates the majority of the PGR don’t feel strongly either way that instructors
have done a good job of providing guidance. Q4 is the same as Q3 indicating instructors have
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Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Question 5 Question 6
Question 7
Question 8
Question 9 Question 10 Question 11 Question 12
3.33
4.69
4.3
Mean: 3.896
3.92
3.08
2.92
2.98
4.29
Likert: Agree
Agree
Neutral
Neutral
Neutral
Agree/Stronger Neutral/Agree Strongly Agree Agree
SD:
0.9506903 0.9638869 1.068571
0.8711287 1.0815588 0.581938555
1.078480675
0.74822485
4.196
4.03
3.35
Agree
Agree
Neutral/Agree
1.3477482 1.00265348 1.32047624 1.119868867
not done a great job in offering literature guidance for respective topics for PGR as the results
are fairly neutral, leaning towards disagreeing that they have provided guidance. The SD
indicates a fairly close grouping of responses from the PGR. Q5 has a neutral response about
whether professors have given helpful feedback during the doctoral process with a slightly larger
dispersion of responses then some of the other questions. This is a surprising result indicating not
many PGR think their professors support them. Q6 has a much stronger agreement (4.29) score,
indicating PGR find their professors to be available to them when they are needed. A natural
question from this would be, if professors are so available, then why do PGR not reach out to
them more to fulfill some of the other needs indicated in the survey. Q7 has a neutral response
about feeling confident about managing a research project. The SD and variance indicates a
slightly broader response to the question indicating there are people who do feel prepared and
those who do not feel prepared as well, leading to the neutrality of the response as a group. Q8,
asking whether friends and family are supportive has the most positive agreement and strongest
response of all the questions, indicating that there are large amounts of support for PGR with a
very tight dispersion indicating very strong feelings about this question from the majority of
respondents. Q9, Q10, Q11 all have very strong positive responses from PGR indicating partners
support the decision, friends and family understand, and partners understand the demands of the
Doctoral experience. Interestingly enough the SD for these questions are all slightly higher
indicating that people either feel strongly in favor of the support or they do not. The final
question has a more neutral response from PGR which asks if the PGR know who to approach
with issues during their Doctoral studies. The neutral (positive leaning) response indicates that
there are several people who do not know who to approach when having issues.
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Qualitative Findings
Continuing with the design for this research study, the second phase of this study was the
qualitative portion, which was performed through a photo elicitation response asking Post
Graduate Researchers (PGR) to find a picture that represented how each student felt about
educational research their beliefs and what it means to them. Onwuegbuzie et al. (2007) stated,
by discovering themes and displaying each numerically, it will aid in describing and interpreting
a topic. As a result, themes were identified and numbered by the primary investigator through the
coding process. With only 12 respondents and limited feedback from the participants, there was
one clear theme that emerged, in addition to one clear pattern and one clear sub-pattern of
thought about educational research.
Each of the entries and photo responses were analyzed by the investigator and common themes
emerged among the limited responses. The main theme was educational research brings forth
new ideas, identifying problems and solutions for constant growth. The patterns that emerged
were not as obvious, but many respondents indicated the need for duality in an approach,
utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in a scientific method to find the best
results. The utilization of interviews, data and observations to create multiple angles to approach
the research. Emerging sub-patterns pointed to bringing people together and not allowing
preconceived notions, views and the background of the subjects to interfere with the study. The
other sub-pattern that emerged was the uncertainty that comes with conducting a research project
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Coding Sheet
THEM ES
TH=THEM ES
TH.1 Research involves bringing forth new
ideas
identifying problems and finding solutions
for constant growth
PATTERNS
PTN=PATTERNS
PTN 1 QUAN and QUAL
Methodologies
should be used in discovery
EMERGING
SUB-PATTERNS
PTN 1a preconceived notions, views and
subject
backgrounds can impact the studies
PTN 1b Unsure of how to properly conduct
a
research project
of this scale and the limited knowledge of conducting one previously. The responses were
limited from the participants, but these themes, patterns and sub-patterns definitely emerged.
There were different manners and verbiage used to convey the meanings, nonetheless they were
present as each PGR identified what their beliefs were about educational research.
Mixed Methods Findings
After analyzing the data from the quantitative and qualitative results, it is important to integrate
the results and as Creswell (2012) stated the basic purpose of mixed methods research is to
integrate the quantitative and qualitative data to draw on the strengths of each. The findings
suggest that student’s beliefs and perceptions about research are there to examine new ideas,
constantly grow and challenge assumptions and beliefs through MM research. However, they do
not feel adequately prepared to perform such a research project. While they do feel as though
they are supported by friends, family, and professors, PGR do not necessarily feel as though they
have the ability to answer the questions research challenges them to answer. The purpose of
research has had been noted by many seminal works and famous researchers as Creswell stated
that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our
understanding of an issue or topic. Wherein you ask a question, collect data, and present an
answer to the question (2017). Thus, student responses are aligned with most commonly held
beliefs and perceptions about what educational research entails. It is interesting to note that the
PGR who were surveyed are close to the end of their Doctoral journey and beginning their
Dissertation.
Conclusion
This Mixed Methods Research was conducted at an Illinois based University and utilized
a QUAN → qual approaches to answer the proposed research questions of what Post Graduate
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Researchers beliefs and perceptions were about educational research, in addition to whether they
felt prepared to begin such a research project. The survey questions were asked quantitatively
and the photo elicitation journals were received and coded qualitatively. The results showed
students do not feel prepared at this point to adequately attempt a research project, however they
do feel supported to attempt research from a mixed methods standpoint to seek new ideas and
answer questions in a scholarly and scientific manner. This topic would benefit greatly with
further research and examination.
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References
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Achieving integration in mixed methods design: An overview.
Presentation for the NIH-OBSSR Workshop, “Using Mixed Methods to Optimize Dissemination
and Implementation of Health Interventions ”Natcher Conference Center NIH Health
Interventions, Natcher Conference Center, NIH Campus, Bethesda, MD.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed
methods approaches. Sage publications.
Onwuegbuzie, A. & Leech, N. (2006). Linking research questions to mixed methods data
analysis procedures. The Qualitative Report, 11(3), 474-498.
Onwuegbuzie, A., Slate, J., Leech, N., & Collins, K. (2007). Conducting mixed analyses: A
general typology. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 1, 4-17.
Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating
quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage.

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