“Motivation of Personnel and Practical Reflection” Please respond to the following:In this week’s discussion, answer the following questions… What is motivation? What factors must be considered in maximizing productivity? What are the various theories of motivation?Over the past two weeks, you have shared where you want to work and why. This week, take a look at job prospects and outlook. For this week’s discussion research, go to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ website, and search for the specific job you are looking to acquire after graduation and discuss salary information, growth potential, and job outlook. Discuss how this compared with your expectations.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Senior Seminar in Criminal
CRJ 499
The Role of Personnel and
Stakeholders in Decision-Making
Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D. & Klofas, J. (2008). Criminal
Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. (4th
Ed.), Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Upon completion of this lesson, you will
be able to:
– Consider personnel and stakeholders and
how they influence decision making
The Impact of Personnel on

Decision-making is an activity in which all
criminal justice personnel must
participate – regardless of rank or
Good decision making comes from good
training, discipline and supervision
Motivation Defined

Psychological concept
– State of mind
– Work ethic
– Learned values

Organizational concept
– Management behaviors
• Inducing — Supporting
• Directing — Leading
• Expecting — Demanding
Background on Organizational
Theory and Motivation

Classical writers
– Management and administration are clear
lines of directive authority

Human Relations
– Focused on how employees fit into an
organization beyond simply their role as

Behavioral School
– Emphasizes the importance of manager and
leader behavior to motivation
Theories of Motivation

Motivation impacts
– Job design
– Leadership

Job Performance
Six theories of motivation

Need theory
Theories X and Y
Achievement – Power – Affiliation Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Theory Z
Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs Theory

By Abraham Maslow, who theorizes we
are motivated by various psychological
and physical needs
McGregor’s Theories X and

“The Human Side of Enterprise”
Theory X premised on:

Management is responsible for organizing the
elements of productive enterprise which are money,
materials, equipment, and people, for economic
Management directs efforts of personnel, motivates
them, controls their actions, and modifies their
behavior to fit the needs of the organization
Without active intervention by management, people
would ignore, even resist, organizational needs
McGregor’s Theories X and
Y, continued

Criminal justice and paramilitary
structure based on theory X
1. Management responsible
2. People are not ignorant
3. Motivation, potential, capacity, and
Achievement – Power Affiliation Theory

Theory about success-oriented people
– Seek to achieve through their own efforts
– Work projects that are challenging
– Seek out reinforcing feedback

“People will work harder for praise than
they will for a raise.” An element of
Expectancy Theory

Belief that if a certain amount of effort is
put forth, a calculated outcome will result
Two forms of expectancy:
– Effort-performance expectancies
– Performance-outcome expectancies
Equity Theory

Individual’s motivation level is affected by
perception of fairness and the correlation
between inputs into the organization and
recognition of outputs
Inputs: age, seniority, experience,
training, education, ability
Outputs: promotion, pay, recognition,
Theory Z

Extension of theory Y
Holistic approach to management and

Management is concerned with production
Management is concerned with the well-being of
workers as productive employees
Must consider employees other needs when
motivating them in a work environment
Check Your Understanding

Motivation & organizational productivity
Theories of motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
McGregor’s Theories X and Y
Achievement Power Affiliation
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Theory Z

Purchase answer to see full