After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:is between 900 and 1200 words in length;includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;is written primarily in third-person;includes a References page;has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?
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Running Head: MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS
1
MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS FROM LOW-INCOME AREAS
Richard Chin
Sarah Lendt
Grantham University
12/15/2018
MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS
2
Education is undoubtedly the greatest piece that shapes one’s professional and social life
in the contemporary world. As such, every student wishes to have the best educational experience,
to get the best of learning experience that would prepare him or her for a future lucrative job and
good life. However, this is practically impossible — the impossibility roots from the individual
intellectual and financial identity of the widely diverse backgrounds of the students. These
differences in backgrounds help in creating social gaps which do not only affect the students’
learning experience but also personality. It is in regards to the social gaps in a school setting that
this essay intends to argue out the motivational factors that can keep students from low-income
areas focused on their ultimate and educational goals.
Every human being needs to belong, to be associated with someone or something.
Likewise, students once admitted they would strive to form associations amongst themselves to
help them soldier through the years of schooling they will have. These groupings, however, are
initially based on shared interests and hobbies such as entertainment and sports. Unfortunately, the
classification is not purely based what any student is interested in, but which student is interested
in what hobby- one’s financial and social class. This unofficial classification violates the
conventionally agreed goal of university or college education of guaranteeing an individual’s
employment opportunity is broadened as well as self-development, to the students from lowincome areas; unless they meet their financial and social class disparities in comparison with the
well to do students.
In support of this argument, Aries & Seider (2005) argue that education can only be termed
as important when it enhances the development of an individual by creating a chance for upward
mobility. In their argument, through upward mobility, students get to create that ideal identity
they aspire to become in their future life as professionals, in the end achieving a desired social
MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS
3
status. As a result, most students from the affluent backgrounds would normally associate
themselves with fellow students who are from affluent backgrounds because they harbor shared
interests. Unfortunately, this alignment leaves out students from low-income areas to associate on
their own, despite of harboring same ambitions as their fellows from the bourgeoisie backgrounds.
These feelings of despair, pain, and ambivalence of being left out from their desired group
initiate an attempt to renegotiate identity especially when they join college. This is because the
students view themselves responsible for being locked for not possessing the favorable ‘elective
affinities’ Lamont and Lareau (1988). Therefore, these students would strive to shed off their past
traits and habits to develop and fit in their preferred identities, ones elicited by the affluent students.
However, to do this, an individual must possess enough social capital. Unlike economic,
which can be developed selfishly by an individual, the social capital of an individual is formed by
having constant interaction with the people around as well as the environment. In so doing, a
person gets to understand the needs of the other, strengths and weaknesses which helps them to
realize what to do or not to to be at par with each other. Fortunately, the environment around the
rural areas, which most students from low-income families hail, is socially structured to enhance
this interactive environment. Unlike the affluent families who prefer to live a life of isolation and
on their own, the low-income families are built around an atmosphere of social growth where
relations are valued. Therefore everyone in them would always attempt to relate to the other in a
way that encourages harmony.
Chenoweth & Galliher (2004), further this argument by asserting the importance of
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory in the development of students from low-income areas
in the face of discrimination from their affluent fellows in college. In explaining this context,
MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS
4
Chenoweth & Galliher talk of the human identity as being built on more factors than economic
and social class. Unlike the social belief that the character is established on the social aspect of
one as well as the financial might of an individual, this theoretical approach discusses the
development as being built on five different elements namely; the child, microsystem,
mesosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
These five stages do explain how the identity of a human being is correlated over time and
changes day in day out depending on a varied number of factors which includes the personality of
an individual, family, peers and cultural aspersions. These play a very significant role in the
eventual traits a student has in college rather than mere social and economic inclinations they are
exposed to in campus- emphasizing on the social advantage students from low income have in
learning.
To emphasize the importance of social identity, Durlak et al. (2011) researched to establish
the impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) on students. According to Elias et al. (2003),
defines SEL as a process of getting competencies that enable one to recognize and manage
emotional feeling through setting and achieving goals, appreciating the views of others by
establishing and maintaining positive relationships and making decisions that can be termed as
responsible. According to the research, the proximal goals of SEL aid in realizing the five
interrelated sets of cognitive, affective and behavioural competencies required in learning namely:
awareness of self, management of self, social knowledge, ability to relate with each other and
ability to make sound decisions (Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning,
2005). As brought out in the research, peers, teachers, and families are key to getting the academic
concepts being dispensed to the students. However, their impact is further supplemented by a more
MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS
5
significant factor, the emotional attachment of the student to what is being learned helps in the
retention of the learned issues.
Israel, Beaulieu & Hartless (2001), also reiterate the need of a family in shaping the identity
of a student. In as much education is meant to build someone, the family structure also plays a key
role in ensuring this is possible as it is from one’s parents that basic social behavior is nurtured and
monitored. Students from low-income rural areas have the advantage of being raised in a
traditional family set up which is comprised of a father, mother, and child. This traditional unit
helps to instill social tolerance and good relations right from childhood which makes it easy for a
student, while at the university, to interact with others. On the other end, students from the affluent
are in most cases raised by single parents. This reduces their social exposure which hinders their
SEL ability. As a result are unlikely to adapt to suit the needs of upward mobility more like the
students from low-income areas do.
In conclusion, students from low-income areas do go through a lot while in college as a
result of being socially discriminated at the beginning of their academic life in these institutions.
However, these bad experiences can be overturned since they are more exposed to tools that can
enable upward mobility than their counterparts from the affluent ends- the ultimate goal of
education.
MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS
6
1. Aries, E., & Seider, M. (2005). The interactive relationship between class identity and the
college experience: The case of lower income students. Qualitative Sociology, 28(4),
419-443.
2. Chenoweth, E., & Galliher, R. V. (2004). Factors influencing college aspirations of rural
West Virginia high school students. Journal of research in rural education, 19(2), 1-14.
3. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011).
The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta‐analysis of
school‐based universal interventions. Child development, 82(1), 405-432.
4. Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2003). Implementation,
sustainability, and scaling up of social-emotional and academic innovations in public
schools. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 303-319.
5. Israel, G. D., Beaulieu, L. J., & Hartless, G. (2001). The influence of family and community
social capital on educational achievement. Rural sociology, 66(1), 43-68.
6. Lamont, M., & Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural capital: Allusions, gaps, and glissandos in recent
theoretical developments. Sociological theory, 153-168.
ame: Written Assignment Rubric

Grid View

List View
Exemplary
Proficient
Developing
Beginning
I
Points
Range:18 (18.00%) 20(20.00%)
Points
Range:16 (16.00%) 17 (17.00%)
Points
Range:14 (14.00%) 15 (15.00%)
Points
Range:12 (12.00%) 13(13.00%)
P
R
1
Addressed the
question
completely and
thoroughly.
Provided additional
supporting
evidence,
demonstrating a
full comprehension
of subject matter.
Addressed the
question(s)
completely and
thoroughly.
Addressed the
majority of the
question(s).
Addressed minimal
portions of the
question(s).
D
t
Application of
Course
Knowledge and
Content
Points
Range:18 (18.00%) 20(20.00%)
Points
Range:16 (16.00%) 17 (17.00%)
Points
Range:14 (14.00%) 15 (15.00%)
Points
Range:12 (12.00%) 13(13.00%)
P
R
1
Thorough technical
application of
course knowledge
and content in a
complete and
concise manner.
Technical
application of
course knowledge
and content is
mostly accurate,
concise and
complete.
Technical
application of
course knowledge
and content is
partially accurate,
concise and
complete.
Technical
application of
course knowledge
and content is
minimally accurate,
concise and
complete.
T
a
c
k
c
i
i
Organization of
Ideas
Points
Range:18 (18.00%) 20(20.00%)
Points
Range:16 (16.00%) 17 (17.00%)
Points
Range:14 (14.00%) 15 (15.00%)
Points
Range:12 (12.00%) 13(13.00%)
P
R
1
Original ideas are
effectively
developed and
Original ideas are
effectively
developed and
Original ideas are
partially developed
and presented in a
Original ideas are
not present and/or
not presented in a
L
o
o
Comprehension
of Assignment
Writing Skills
Research Skills
Exemplary
Proficient
Developing
Beginning
I
presented in a
logical, sequential
order throughout
the entire
assignment.
Includes adequate
and appropriate
supporting
evidence.
presented in a
logical, sequential
order within a
majority of the
assignment.
Includes acceptable
supporting
evidence
somewhat logical,
sequential order.
Inadequate
supporting
evidence.
logical, sequential
order. Organization
is difficult to follow
throughout the
assignment. Lacks
supporting
evidence.
p
t
e
a
s
e
Points
Range:18 (18.00%) 20(20.00%)
Points
Range:16 (16.00%) 17 (17.00%)
Points
Range:14 (14.00%) 15 (15.00%)
Points
Range:12 (12.00%) 13(13.00%)
P
R
1
Mechanics
(spelling, grammar,
and punctuation)
are flawless,
including proficient
demonstration of
citations and
formatting
throughout the
entire assignment.
Mechanics
(spelling, grammar,
and punctuation)
are accurate
including
demonstration of
citations and
formatting within a
majority of the
assignment.
Partial errors with
mechanics
(spelling, grammar,
and punctuation)
including
demonstration of
citations and
formatting within
minimal portions of
the assignment.
Multiple errors with
mechanics
(spelling, grammar,
and punctuation),
inaccurate
demonstration of
citations and
formatting.
A
i
d
e
m
(
g
p
d
c
f
p
Points
Range:18 (18.00%) 20(20.00%)
Points
Range:16 (16.00%) 17 (17.00%)
Points
Range:14 (14.00%) 15 (15.00%)
Points
Range:12 (12.00%) 13(13.00%)
P
R
1
Accurate and
applicable use of
resources relevant
to the subject
matter that
enhance the overall
assignment.
Appropriate use of
resources relevant
to the subject
matter.
Adequate use of
resources, not all
resources relevant
to the subject
matter.
Minimal use of
resources relevant
to the subject
matter.
N
r
a
Name:Written Assignment Rubric
APA Style formatting of
References page APA intext citation
Points:
Points:
Points:
15 (15.00%)
12 (12.00%)
8 (8.00%)
(12-15 points) Line spacing,
italicizing, capitalization,
punctuation of citations are
perfect or nearly perfect
(9-12 points) Line spacing,
italicizing, capitalization,
punctuation of citations are
accurate for the most part;
some inconsistencies are
evident
(0-8 points) Line spac
italicizing, capitalizati
punctuation of citatio
frequently incorrect
Points:
Points:
Points:
15 (15.00%)
12 (12.00%)
8 (8.00%)
(12-15 points) Academic
tone; direct quotations and
paraphrased passages
qualifies each of the authors;
(9-12 points) Academic tone;
direct quotations and
paraphrased passages are
cited but authors are not
qualified
(0-8 points) Tone is n
academic; No eviden
qualifying authors cit
the essay and/or no
citations are used in t
essay
Feedback:
Excellent job with APA.
APA Style writing
Feedback:
Good academic tone and use
of quotations and
paraphrasing. You must
qualify your authors. What
makes them qualified as
experts on this topic?
Sources
Points:
Points:
Points:
15 (15.00%)
12 (12.00%)
8 (8.00%)
(12-15 points) Sources come
from scholarly journals or
books, credible websites;
authors representing each
side of the debate have
compatible credibility
(9-12 points) Several sources
come from scholarly journals
or books, credible websites;
authors representing each
side of the debate are not
equal in terms of credibility
(0-8 points) Few sour
come from scholarly
journals or books, cre
websites; no attempt
balance multiple
viewpoints
Feedback:
These sources look great. I
don’t see you addressing an
opposing viewpoint on this
topic.
Argumentation
Points:
Points:
Points:
20 (20.00%)
15 (15.00%)
10 (10.00%)
(16-20 points) Presents a
clear argument/point of view;
includes sources representing
more than one side of the
issue; withholds personal
opinion until the conclusion
of the essay
(11-15 points) The
argument/point of view is not
clear; includes sources
representing more than one
side of the issue; personal
opinion is presented prior to
the end of the essay
(0-10 points) Does no
present an argument
of view; sources repr
only one side of the i
personal opinion is ev
throughout the essay
Feedback:
I don’t see you addre
an opposing viewpoin
This needs work.
Rhetoric
Points:
Points:
Points:
15 (15.00%)
12 (12.00%)
8 (8.00%)
(12-15 points) Elements of
pathos, ethos, and logos are
present; these appeals work
together to propose a
solution; avoids logical fallacy
in the reasoning behind the
solution
(9-12 points) Attempts to
include pathos, ethos, and
logos are present; these
appeals need to be reworked
to be successful; contains
logical fallacy in the reasoning
behind the solution
(0-8 points) No evide
pathos, ethos or logo
logical fallacy in the
reasoning behind the
solution
Points:
Points:
Points:
10 (10.00%)
7 (7.00%)
5 (5.00%)
(8-10 points) Between 900
and 1200 words in length;
includes four or more sources
(6-7 points) Contains more
than 1200 words; and/or
needs appropriate number of
sources
(0-5 points) Contains
than 900 words; does
refer to four or more
sources
Feedback:
Good.
Assignment Criteria
Feedback:
Great.
Editing/Proofreading
Points:
Points:
Points:
10 (10.00%)
7 (7.00%)
5 (5.00%)
(8-10 points) Has been closely
edited so that it contains few
or no mechanical errors.
(6-7 points) Has been loosely
edited so that it contains
some mechanical errors.
(0-5 points) Has not b
edited so that it cont
several mechanical e
Feedback:
Continue to proofread
carefully to eliminate errors.

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