add or comment to these posts with referencePost one:The New York City terrorist attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), killed nearly 2800 people and thousands more had subsequent health problems. Rescue and recovery workers, especially those who arrived early at the World Trade Center site or worked for longer periods, were more likely to develop respiratory illness than were other exposed groups. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder included proximity to the site on 9/11, living or working in lower Manhattan, rescue or recovery work at the World Trade Center site, event-related loss of spouse, and low social support. Investigators note associations between 9/11 exposures and additional disorders, such as depression and substance use; however, for some health problems association with exposures related to 9/11 is unclear. Like all other countries and health departments all over the world, before 9/11 in the USA the focus on emergencies and the required resources was narrow. Although the high level of preparedness when there were public health aspects to emergencies, no formal organizational structure for emergency planning and response existed before 9/11. After the attacks, the country health invested substantially in infrastructure and operations to respond to emergencies. New Federal funding and support for public health and health-care preparedness allowed to hire dedicated staff to plan for emergencies. At the same time, because emergency response often requires the effort of the entire health department, the department promoted this dual use of these funds to strengthen the core public health infrastructure. References : Farley, T. A., MD, & Weisfuse, I., MD. (2011). Redefining of public health preparedness after 9/11. Lancet, the, 378(9794), 957-959. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60969-0Perlman, S. E., Ms, Friedman, S., MD, Galea, S., Prof, Nair, H. P., PhD, Erős-Sarnyai, M., MD, Stellman, S. D., Prof, . . . Greene, C. M., MD. (2011). Short-term and medium-term health effects of 9/11. Lancet, the, 378(9794), 925-934. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60967-7Post Two:Based on my readings and experience, health care emergency management has created many jobs unlike before its evolution. Emergency management enables the protection of civilians through quick response to community needs during disasters. Its introduction has reduced the casualties that succumb to accidents. Initially, health care emergency management was a male-dominated field. Some of the participants had no professional qualifications to handle severe bodily injuries. However, the circumstances have changed. Education programs have been developed to equip potential candidates with relevant knowledge to successfully work as health care emergency managers, improving emergency interventions to save lives. The advancement of emergency management has fostered workplace diversity. Unlike earlier where only men worked in the field, women have been incorporated in emergency management. The growth rate has increased as women can acquire relevant knowledge needed to handle emergencies. For instance, in 2010, 37.5% of employees working as emergency managers were female (Pittman, 2011). Diversity has enabled positive changes and better management of emergency cases. The traditional approaches of recruiting personnel have been replaced by academic qualifications to fill health care emergency management roles. Thedrastic growth in emergency management is attributed to increased access to education. Academic institutions equip potential candidates with skills and knowledge to be an emergency manager. These provisions have increased the preparedness for natural disasters in hospitals (Barbera, Yeatts, & Macintyre, 2009). Moreover, technology evolution and globalization have influenced the field’s progress (LeBlanc, Kosmos, & Avchen, 2017). Technology has improved communication, patient monitoring, rescue, and diagnosis. Globalization has enabled the adoption of ideas from nations with better emergency management systems. Emergency management is expected to grow continually because of improved education, technology, and globalization. ReferencesBarbera, J., Yeatts, D., & Macintyre, A. (2009). Challenge of hospital emergency preparedness: Analysis and recommendations. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 3(S1), S74-S82. Retrieved from http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2…LeBlanc, T., Kosmos, C., & Avchen, R. (2017). Evolution of public health emergency management from preparedness to response and recovery: Introduction and contents of the volume. American Journal of Public Health, 107(S2), S118-S119. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC55944…Pittman, E. (2011). How emergency management is changing (for the better). Government Technology. Retrieved from www.govtech.com/em/training/How-Emergency-Manageme…
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