Analyze the three remaining articles you found in Week 7, “Dissertation : Literature Review, in the Stadtlander text.Review the web resource “Integrating Arguments in Paragraphs.”The Assignment:Submit an Annotated Bibliography of your remaining three articles ResourcesGalvan, J. L. (2015). Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences (6th ed). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak.Chapter 8, “Synthesizing Literature Prior to Writing a Review” (pp. 73–80)Stadtlander, L. M. (2015). Finding your way to a Ph.D.: Advice from the dissertation mentor. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.Chapter 9, “Dissertation Chapter 2: Literature Review” (pp. 89–91)RMIT University. (2005). Integrating arguments in paragraphs. Retrieved fromhttps://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/2_AssessmentTasks/assess_tuts/lit_review_LL/integration.html
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Schools of Hope
Foi et Joie in Chad and Haiti
BY PATRICK SAMWAY
May 14, 2012
America 17
photo: aimÉe terosky
S
omething new is happening in Chad and Haiti— after the earthquake on Jan. 12, 2010. In those few minutes
actually something quite miraculous—and third- the lives of some three million Haitians changed, and the
world Francophone educators are beginning to architectonics of the city would never be the same. The
take notice. Jesuits in Mongo, Chad and Port-au- landmark presidential palace and both the Anglican and
Prince, Haiti, have recently started
Foi et Joie students in Haiti
Foi et Joie schools, after having
formally affiliated themselves with
Fe y Alegría, an international system of education emanating from
Caracas, Venezuela. Both terms,
one French and the other Spanish,
mean the same: faith and joy.
Just before 7 a.m. on any weekday school morning in Mongo, a
town of 20,000 inhabitants located in central Chad, small bands of
students—boys casually dressed
in black pants and white shirts
and girls in long white laffafi and
black headscarves—make their
way slowly to the local lycée. As
they cross one or more of the
town’s main roads, they all but disappear from sight as swirling
clouds of dust envelope them.
They accept this environment as
normal. In this part of Chad during the dry season, which lasts
from November to June, water is
extremely scarce. In particularly
dry times, bleached-white cattle skeletons lie about the des- Catholic cathedrals still lie in ruins, as if nothing has been
iccated fields. The omnipresent whirlwinds of dust, tossed done in the last two years. The Jesuit-built Villa Manrèse,
20 feet into the air, are caused mainly by speeding passenger an imposing retreat house that the former-dictator François
buses and overburdened cargo trucks.
(“Papa Doc”) Duvalier took over when he expelled 18
If students in Mongo learn to survive in the forbidding Jesuits in 1964 for promoting issues of faith and justice, now
environment of the sub-Saharan regions, those in Port-au- resembles nothing more than an empty parking lot—with
Prince have the equally daunting task of coping with life not one tiny stone on another!
While Haitian refugees continue to live in fetid, choleraprone, makeshift camps throughout the city, they do not see
PATRICK SAMWAY, S.J.,is a professor of English at Saint Joseph’s
University in Philadelphia and the author of Educating Darfur
progress on the structural and social changes that are so desRefugees: A Jesuit’s Efforts in Chad (University of Scranton Press,
perately needed. Financial aid poured into Haiti after the
2007). He has spent 18 months in Chad and has visited Haiti regularearthquake, but it is difficult to track the monies accurately.
ly over the past 25 years.
Before Christmas 2011, for example, the Clinton Bush
Haiti Fund made a $914,000 grant to Quisqueya, a fairly
new university in Port-au-Prince, to develop both current
and future business leaders. This fund notes that the total
value of damage caused by the earthquake is estimated at
about $8 billion, of which approximately $5.5 billion was
lost by the private sector. The United States spent $1.1 billion on immediate post-quake relief, according to an
Associated Press release (Sept. 29, 2010), yet not one cent
of the $1.15 billion promised in March 2010 by the United
States for rebuilding had reached Port-au-Prince by the
time the AP article was written. And less than 15 percent of
competitive locally, nationally and, God willing, internationally. Some religiously sponsored schools, like the exemplary
Saint Louis de Gonzague school, run by the Brothers of
Christian Instruction in Port-au-Prince, and the Chadian,
Jesuit-sponsored Charles Lwanga School in Sarh, have been
innovative on many fronts. But these are the exception.
Overall the educational system in both countries has long
needed innovative forms of pedagogy. That task poses linguistic obstacles for populations that officially speak myriad
local languages in addition to Arabic/French in Chad, or
Creole/French in Haiti.
Chadian and Haitian Jesuits and their lay counterparts are
convinced that seeds planted in 1955 by José
María Vélaz, S.J., a professor at the Andres
Bello Catholic University, and his friend,
Tim Dulle @Dulle048
Abraham Reyes, who turned his own home
In my #JesuitEd, the value of Finding God in All
into a school for the poor, have had remarkThings gives sacramental value to anything
able results in Latin America, Spain and now
from Baseball to history exams.
Chad and Haiti. Father Vélaz and Señor
Reyes, after touring the shantytown of Gato
reconstruction pledges from 50 other countries ($686 mil- Negro in Catia, near Caracas, saw that there is a fundamental
lion of almost $8.75 billion pledged for 2010-11) had link between poverty and a lack of education, and they deterarrived. Thus the crucial question needs to be asked: What mined to do something about it. Inspired by the 17th-centupriorities should be established to bring about a transfor- ry Jesuit villages in Paraguay, called in Spanish reducciones,
mation of the Haitian landscape and mindscape?
and by the dedicated efforts of his own university students,
Father Vélaz moved forward with audacious speed. During
Education by Notes and Rote
the 1960s, Fe y Alegría opened schools in Ecuador, Panama,
As Paul Farmer, a physician and the chairman of Harvard Peru and Bolivia before spreading out to other countries.
Medical School’s Department of Global Health and Social
Today Fe y Alegría includes at least 1,200 schools, 2,400
Medicine, notes in his book Haiti After the Earthquake outreach educational centers, 33,000 teachers and 946,600
(2011), “Human capital had long been
students in 19 countries. The Fe y
Haiti’s chief asset, and getting children and
Alegría credo is based on sound philoON THE WEB
young people into safe schools that offered
sophical and educational pedagogy:
A visit to a Jesuit
modern pedagogy was a top priority.”
Construct an educated society by allowhigh school religion class.
americamagazine.org/video
There is no need to remind the children
ing those involved to be active partners in
of Haiti of the importance of education.
building up the academic program,
Yet, for those who do attend school, the days are filled with accounting both for faith in God’s desire to help people and
a simple, robot-like task: assiduously copying sentences and the faith we all need to have in one another to bring about
numbers from the blackboard into their notebooks. They God’s kingdom on earth.
will later memorize what they have written while daylight is
Fe y Alegría/Foi et Joie is rooted in the realization that a
still available. In both Haiti and Chad, educational peda- Christian educational system, which confronts innumerable
gogy has remained the same for decades, part of a way of life social and political injustices, can be an important part of
deeply entrenched in all too many schools. Students show the church’s efforts to build a more just and peaceful world.
up for class; teachers write their lessons on the blackboards; The vision of St. Ignatius Loyola—especially the care for
and then students twist and angle about to see what has each student (in Latin, cura personalis)—informs all dimenbeen written. Creativity is rarely expected or demanded. sions of this program.
Meticulous penmanship and full notebooks pass as signs of
academic achievement.
Applying the Vision
What is often forgotten is that Haitian and Chadian stu- Although organized and chartered as private, independent
dents have names, come from specific families and aspire to educational systems, Foi et Joie in Chad and Haiti have the
acquire the best of what their cultures and societies can legal recognition and encouragement of the local departoffer—particularly an education that makes such students ments of education where they work. After a few short
18
America
May 14, 2012
years, there are already 25 Foi et Joie primary schools in
rural areas surrounding Mongo and neighboring Bitkine.
Each school, designed to educate approximately 180 students, has several buildings, including classroom buildings, a library, a kitchen run by
parents of the students and a building to
store school materials and grains, as well as
free-standing buildings containing toilets
and washstands. In all cases, students have
access to water. The Chadian government
simply cannot provide this type of personalized
education for the 80,000 primary schoolchildren in the larger Mongo area. It is hoped, however, that the government
will see that Foi et Joie’s careful planning and innovations
can be applied to their schools as well.
Teachers in Foi et Joie schools routinely undergo supervised training sessions, sometimes by personnel who come
from outside the country. In November and December
2010, for example, Señora Beatriz Borjas, a leading Fe y
Alegría educator in Venezuela, spent two months advising
the Chadian Foi et Joie staff and meeting with teachers in
plenary sessions, as well as visiting the individual Foi et Joie
schools. Likewise, Sr. Anne Minguet, R.C.E., has visited
Mongo three times since 2007. The long experience in education of these two dedicated religious women working with
Fe y Alegría gives the necessary assurance that Chadian Foi
et Joie schools meet international standards.
One major reason that Foi et Joie is taking hold so rapidly is that the parents of the students are involved in important aspects of running the school. In Chad, not only have
parents quarried and carried stone to six building sites, but
under supervision they cut the individual stones into appropriate sizes. Parents then helped do the construction work
for each building. In Haiti, especially at the
new Foi et Joie school at Balan, not far from
Port-au-Prince near the Dominican border,
parents have been involved in constructing
and maintaining a series of pools at Babaco.
A two-mile system of underground pipes
makes it possible for students to drink from
a bacteria-free water source. Although many
of these parents have never attended a school of any sort,
they recognize the value of the work they willingly undertake.
The innovative forms of participation have another definite effect: Students clearly see the results of their parents’
hard work—sometimes done under an unforgiving sun—
and know that their school communicates the values they
need to succeed in life. With such empowering involvement,
parents and students cannot but be proud of their local Foi
et Joie schools. It does not take long to realize that Foi et Joie
is more than a community educational project, since its
influence reaches thousands of individuals each year. As
these schools become more mature and develop sustainable
programs, they can communicate with other schools in need
James Millikan @MillikanJames
#JesuitEd at Seattle University has crystallized
my convictions of the importance of formation
as well as information
of direction and pedagogical guidance.
A group of faculty members, administrators and other
personnel at Saint Joseph’s University in Philadelphia, calling themselves SJU Project Haiti: Learning and Growing
Together, has entered into a partnership with Foi et Joie:
Haiti. Four members of this group, under the leadership of
Terrance Furin of the education department, visited Portau-Prince for several days in October 2011. Their mission
was simple: to listen to the needs of the five-member Foi et
Joie leadership team, ably directed by Ambroise Gabriel,
S.J., and to visit a number of the schools in the area. Two
schools, the first in Balan and the second in Ouanaminthe,
started by James Boynton, a Jesuit brother, in the northeastern part of the country, are already fully functioning; 26
more are in various stages of construction. Furthermore,
SJU Project Haiti invited this leadership team to come to
Saint Joseph’s University for a week in March 2012. There
they visited local schools, like the Gesu School, the French
International School, Archmere Academy and Waldron
Mercy Academy, and discussed those American forms of
pedagogy that might be suitable for their schools.
Yes, change is in the air. And in the years to come, those
Chadian or Haitian students who trek to their local lycées
Marti S. @versonic
If I hadn’t gone to @CanisiusCollege, I would
never have joined JVC, which has shaped so
many life choices #JesuitEd
each weekday might just become catalysts for more change
if they have experienced what Foi et Joie elementary schools
have to offer. These students will have been given a challenge, based on very positive educational experiences, to
assume leadership roles in all sectors of their societies. Few
doubt that positive, constructive education, which involves
an entire village or town, is the key to a society’s success. Foi
et Joie knows this and is doing something about it.
As Father Gabriel is fond saying, in Creole, “Yon timoun
ki lekòl se benefis tout moun” (“A child in school helps
A
everyone”).
May 14, 2012
America 19
© America Press Inc. 2012. All rights reserved. www.americamagazine.org
Schools of Hope
Foi et Joie in Chad and Haiti
BY PATRICK SAMWAY
May 14, 2012
America 17
photo: aimÉe terosky
S
omething new is happening in Chad and Haiti— after the earthquake on Jan. 12, 2010. In those few minutes
actually something quite miraculous—and third- the lives of some three million Haitians changed, and the
world Francophone educators are beginning to architectonics of the city would never be the same. The
take notice. Jesuits in Mongo, Chad and Port-au- landmark presidential palace and both the Anglican and
Prince, Haiti, have recently started
Foi et Joie students in Haiti
Foi et Joie schools, after having
formally affiliated themselves with
Fe y Alegría, an international system of education emanating from
Caracas, Venezuela. Both terms,
one French and the other Spanish,
mean the same: faith and joy.
Just before 7 a.m. on any weekday school morning in Mongo, a
town of 20,000 inhabitants located in central Chad, small bands of
students—boys casually dressed
in black pants and white shirts
and girls in long white laffafi and
black headscarves—make their
way slowly to the local lycée. As
they cross one or more of the
town’s main roads, they all but disappear from sight as swirling
clouds of dust envelope them.
They accept this environment as
normal. In this part of Chad during the dry season, which lasts
from November to June, water is
extremely scarce. In particularly
dry times, bleached-white cattle skeletons lie about the des- Catholic cathedrals still lie in ruins, as if nothing has been
iccated fields. The omnipresent whirlwinds of dust, tossed done in the last two years. The Jesuit-built Villa Manrèse,
20 feet into the air, are caused mainly by speeding passenger an imposing retreat house that the former-dictator François
buses and overburdened cargo trucks.
(“Papa Doc”) Duvalier took over when he expelled 18
If students in Mongo learn to survive in the forbidding Jesuits in 1964 for promoting issues of faith and justice, now
environment of the sub-Saharan regions, those in Port-au- resembles nothing more than an empty parking lot—with
Prince have the equally daunting task of coping with life not one tiny stone on another!
While Haitian refugees continue to live in fetid, choleraprone, makeshift camps throughout the city, they do not see
PATRICK SAMWAY, S.J.,is a professor of English at Saint Joseph’s
University in Philadelphia and the author of Educating Darfur
progress on the structural and social changes that are so desRefugees: A Jesuit’s Efforts in Chad (University of Scranton Press,
perately needed. Financial aid poured into Haiti after the
2007). He has spent 18 months in Chad and has visited Haiti regularearthquake, but it is difficult to track the monies accurately.
ly over the past 25 years.
Before Christmas 2011, for example, the Clinton Bush
Haiti Fund made a $914,000 grant to Quisqueya, a fairly
new university in Port-au-Prince, to develop both current
and future business leaders. This fund notes that the total
value of damage caused by the earthquake is estimated at
about $8 billion, of which approximately $5.5 billion was
lost by the private sector. The United States spent $1.1 billion on immediate post-quake relief, according to an
Associated Press release (Sept. 29, 2010), yet not one cent
of the $1.15 billion promised in March 2010 by the United
States for rebuilding had reached Port-au-Prince by the
time the AP article was written. And less than 15 percent of
competitive locally, nationally and, God willing, internationally. Some religiously sponsored schools, like the exemplary
Saint Louis de Gonzague school, run by the Brothers of
Christian Instruction in Port-au-Prince, and the Chadian,
Jesuit-sponsored Charles Lwanga School in Sarh, have been
innovative on many fronts. But these are the exception.
Overall the educational system in both countries has long
needed innovative forms of pedagogy. That task poses linguistic obstacles for populations that officially speak myriad
local languages in addition to Arabic/French in Chad, or
Creole/French in Haiti.
Chadian and Haitian Jesuits and their lay counterparts are
convinced that seeds planted in 1955 by José
María Vélaz, S.J., a professor at the Andres
Bello Catholic University, and his friend,
Tim Dulle @Dulle048
Abraham Reyes, who turned his own home
In my #JesuitEd, the value of Finding God in All
into a school for the poor, have had remarkThings gives sacramental value to anything
able results in Latin America, Spain and now
from Baseball to history exams.
Chad and Haiti. Father Vélaz and Señor
Reyes, after touring the shantytown of Gato
reconstruction pledges from 50 other countries ($686 mil- Negro in Catia, near Caracas, saw that there is a fundamental
lion of almost $8.75 billion pledged for 2010-11) had link between poverty and a lack of education, and they deterarrived. Thus the crucial question needs to be asked: What mined to do something about it. Inspired by the 17th-centupriorities should be established to bring about a transfor- ry Jesuit villages in Paraguay, called in Spanish reducciones,
mation of the Haitian landscape and mindscape?
and by the dedicated efforts of his own university students,
Father Vélaz moved forward with audacious speed. During
Education by Notes and Rote
the 1960s, Fe y Alegría opened schools in Ecuador, Panama,
As Paul Farmer, a physician and the chairman of Harvard Peru and Bolivia before spreading out to other countries.
Medical School’s Department of Global Health and Social
Today Fe y Alegría includes at least 1,200 schools, 2,400
Medicine, notes in his book Haiti After the Earthquake outreach educational centers, 33,000 teachers and 946,600
(2011), “Human capital had long been
students in 19 countries. The Fe y
Haiti’s chief asset, and getting children and
Alegría credo is based on sound philoON THE WEB
young people into safe schools that offered
sophical and educational pedagogy:
A visit to a Jesuit
modern pedagogy was a top priority.”
Construct an educated society by allowhigh school religion class.
americamagazine.org/video
There is no need to remind the children
ing those involved to be active partners in
of Haiti of the importance of education.
building up the academic program,
Yet, for those who do attend school, the days are filled with accounting both for faith in God’s desire to help people and
a simple, robot-like task: assiduously copying sentences and the faith we all need to have in one another to bring about
numbers from the blackboard into their notebooks. They God’s kingdom on earth.
will later memorize what they have written while daylight is
Fe y Alegría/Foi et Joie is rooted in the realization that a
still available. In both Haiti and Chad, educational peda- Christian educ …
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