1.Goldstein presents several paradigms and approaches, as well as their own views of thinking. Compare two of the following perspectives, describing first the two approaches you selected.Next, note the apparent similarities in the approaches (for example, did they emerge at the same time? Are there similar research methods used?) and note their differences. Did one approach influence the other?William James’s approach.Behaviorism.Gestalt psychology.Wilhelm Wundt approach.The cognitive approach2.In his article “The Origins of Cognitive Thought,” B. F. Skinner derides the rise of cognitive psychology and cognitive science in the 1950s: The battle cry of the cognitive revolution is “Mind is back!” A “great new science of mind” is born. Behaviorism nearly destroyed our concern for it, but behaviorism has been overthrown, and we can take up again where philosophers and early psychologists left off (p. 17). For this discussion, respond to the following:Have advances in cognitive psychology and cognitive science truly overthrown behaviorism?What applications for behaviorism exist today?What evidence do you have to support your position3.Consider the following scenario: You have a five-year-old daughter who suddenly refuses to go to bed on time. She comes up with the classic excuses: needs a story, a song, a kiss, a glass of water, to use the bathroom. Then, when all appeals are exhausted, she moves into the toughest thing for a parent to defend against: monsters!You suspect that she is not really frightened and that this is just another delay tactic. You even give her a water pistol to shoot the monsters, but this just results in damp posters on her walls. You need to find a way to get your child to go to bed on time.For this discussion draw on behaviorist principles learned in your text and other readings to create a plan for modifying your child’s behavior. Name specific behavioral principles (positive reinforcement, schedules of reinforcement, and so on), and link your action plan to the specific principles.4.Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. For this discussion, complete the following:Describe the differences between top-down and bottom-up theories of perception.Test your perceptual patterns to determine whether you think synesthesia is based more on low-level or higher level cognitive processes, then discuss. You will need the resources on synesthesia for this part of the discussion.Name at least one famous person who is reported to have synesthesia and describe the type of synesthesia he or she experiences5.For this discussion consider: Should cognitive performance-enhancing drugs such as Ritalin, Adderall, and Concerta be banned?This question has created a firestorm of debate across college campuses in America over many years. In this discussion you will take a position on whether or not cognitive performance-enhancing drugs should be banned and find a journal article that supports your side:Describe at least one of the main arguments in the article and explain the supporting evidence the authors of the article use to support their argument.Describe the article’s conclusions.Explain the implications of the findings and how they support the position you have taken in the debate.