A public health program is costly in time, expenditures, and effort. The stakes are high, and the aims are noble, often no less than improving the wellbeing of an entire community or group. The only way to determine whether the program has been worth these costs is to conduct thorough evaluations. In public health, as in most fields, researchers and experts have differing terms for similar concepts, and there is a lack of consistent labels that are used throughout a given discipline. For example, public health textbooks differ in how they categorize subtopics under the umbrella term of evaluation. This week’s course texts describe two differing ways to conceptualize the four types of evaluation on which you will focus this week: formative, process, impact, and outcome. Although they agree on formative and process evaluation, they give opposite explanations for impact and outcome evaluations. For the purposes of this week’s work, please use the Fertman text’s definitions.For this week’s Discussion, review the media titled Evaluating Health Programs. Consider how Water Missions Belize co-founder Jennifer Harsta conducts program evaluation in a water sanitation program. Also, reflect on how she and her employees might improve her program based on the evaluation and how she might improve her evaluation methods. Then, using credible online sources, locate two examples of public health programs that have been thoroughly evaluated. One way to find examples of evaluations is to search for public health topics of interest to you. For example, the phrase “tobacco program outcomes” yields a good sample evaluation at http://www.cdc.gov/prc/prevention-strategies/smoking-cessation-program.htm (Note: Please do not use this example for your post.)Post a summary of the evaluations of two public health programs that includes the evaluators, stakeholders, results, and unique features. For each program, explain one way in which you might use the evaluation results to improve the program. Finally, explain which program evaluation was more effective and why.
wal_pubh8475_09_a_en_cc.zip

health_promotion_program.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

HEALTH
PROMOTION
PROGR AMS
Fr
rom
m The
eory
y to Pr actice
CARL I. FERTMAN
DIANE D. ALLENSWORTH
EDI TOR S
S ociet y for Public Health Educ ation
Health Promotion
Programs
From Theory to Practice
CARL I. FERTMAN
DIANE D. ALLENSWORTH
EDITORS
THE SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION
Copyright © 2010 by the Society for Public Health Education. All rights reserved.
Published by Jossey-Bass
A Wiley Imprint
989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741—www.josseybass.com
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted
under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written
permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the
Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax
978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be
addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030,
201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information
may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read.
Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in
preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness
of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials.
The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a
professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any
other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.
Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call
our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax
317-572-4002.
Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may
not be available in electronic books.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Health promotion programs: from theory to practice/Carl I. Fertman, Diane D. Allensworth, editors.
p.; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-470-24155-4 (pbk.)
1. Health promotion. I. Fertman, Carl I., date. II. Allensworth, Diane DeMuth.
[DNLM: 1. Health Promotion—United States. 2. Health Education—United States.
WA 590 H4396 2010]
RA427.8.H5255 2010
613—dc22
2009054080
Printed in the United States of America
FIRST EDITION
PB Printing
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
CONTENTS
Figures, Tables, and Exhibits ix
Preface xiii
Carl I. Fertman, Diane D. Allensworth
The Contributors xix
SOPHE xxv
PART ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF HEALTH PROMOTION
PROGRAMS
1. What Are Health Promotion Programs? 3
Carl I. Fertman, Diane D. Allensworth, M. Elaine Auld
Health, Health Promotion, and Health Promotion Programs 4
Historical Context for Health Promotion 8
Healthy People: A National Public-Private Partnership to Promote Health 12
Health Education and Health Promotion 15
Settings for Health Promotion Programs 18
Stakeholders in Health Promotion Programs 21
2. Health Promotion Programs Designed to Eliminate Health
Disparities 29
Francisco Soto Mas, Diane D. Allensworth, Camara Phyllis Jones
Population Groups and Health Disparities 30
Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health 37
Program Strategies to Eliminate Health Disparities Among Minorities
38
CONTENTS
IV
3. Theory in Health Promotion Programs 57
Leonard Jack Jr., Melissa Grim, Tyra Gross, Sara Lynch,
Carlen McLin
Theory in Health Promotion Programs 58
Foundational Theories: Intrapersonal Level 60
Foundational Theories: Interpersonal Level 64
Foundational Theories: Population Level 67
Health Promotion Program Planning Models 71
Using Health Theories and Planning Models 79
PART TWO: PLANNING HEALTH PROMOTION
PROGRAMS
4. Assessing the Needs of Program Participants 91
James H. Price, Joseph A. Dake, Britney Ward
Defining a Needs Assessment 92
Conducting a Health Needs Assessment 97
Promoting a Needs Assessment 98
Using Primary Data Methods and Tools 99
Using Secondary Data Methods and Tools 106
Reporting and Sharing the Findings 108
5. Making Decisions to Create and Support a Program 121
W. William Chen, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Huey-Shys Chen
Identifying a Mission Statement, Goals, and Objectives
Writing Program Objectives 124
Deciding on Program Interventions 127
Selecting Health Promotion Materials 131
Using Evidence-Based Interventions 132
Developing Effective Policies and Procedures 139
Transitioning to Program Implementation 146
122
PART THREE: IMPLEMENTING HEALTH PROMOTION
PROGRAMS
6. Implementation Tools, Program Staff, and Budgets 153
Jean M. Breny Bontempi, Michael C. Fagen, Kathleen M. Roe
From Program Planning to Action Planning
Preparing a Logic Model 155
154
CONTENTS
V
Using a Gantt Chart to Guide Implementation 161
Planning for Implementation Challenges 164
Hiring and Managing High-Quality Program Staff 168
Budgeting and Fiscal Management 171
7. Advocacy
181
Regina A. Galer-Unti, Kelly Bishop Alley, Regina McCoy Pulliam
Creating an Advocacy Agenda for a Program 182
Advocacy as a Professional Responsibility 184
Examples of Successful Health Policy Advocacy 185
Becoming Fluent in the Language of Advocacy 187
Forming Alliances and Partnerships for Advocacy 192
Advocacy Methods 194
Advocacy and Technology 199
8. Communicating Health Information Effectively 203
Neyal J. Ammary-Risch, Allison Zambon, Kelli McCormack Brown
Communication in Health Promotion Programs 204
Developing a Communication Plan for a Site 212
Developing and Pretesting Concepts, Messages, and Materials
218
9. Developing and Increasing Program Funding 233
Carl I. Fertman, Karen A. Spiller, Angela D. Mickalide
Sources of Program Funding 234
Funding Varies by Program Participants and Setting
Writing a Grant Proposal 240
Maintaining Relationships with Funders 247
Fundraising 249
Working with Board Members 252
238
PART FOUR: EVALUATING AND SUSTAINING
HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS
10. Evaluating and Improving a Health Promotion
Program 259
Daniel Perales, Andy Fourney, Barbara MkNelly, Edward Mamary
Program Evaluation Definition, Types, and Terms
Evaluation Frameworks 267
Evaluation Designs 271
Data Collection and Analysis 274
Evaluation Reports 274
260
CONTENTS
VI
Evaluation and Program Design 280
Implementing an Evaluation 283
11. Leadership for Change and Sustainability 291
David A. Sleet, Sara L. Cole
Catalyzing and Mastering Change 292
Engaging Participants and Building Support 295
Ensuring Competence Through Credentialing 303
Enhancing Program Impact and Sustainability 306
PART FIVE: HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS IN
DIVERSE SETTINGS
12. Promoting Health in Schools and Universities 313
Marlene K. Tappe, Diane D. Allensworth, Jim Grizzell
Rationale for Promoting Health in Schools and Universities 314
Evolving Role of Promoting Health in Schools and Universities 316
Current Role of Promoting Health in Schools and Universities 316
Resources and Tools 324
Challenges 330
Career Opportunities 334
13. Patient-Focused Health Promotion Programs in Health
Care Organizations 341
Louise Villejo, Cezanne Garcia, Katherine Crosson
Evolving Role of Programs in Health Care Organizations 342
Effective Programs in Health Care Organizations 345
Resources for Programs in Health Care Organizations 352
Challenges for Programs in Health Care Organizations 357
Career Opportunities in Health Care Organizations 361
14. Health Promotion Programs in Workplace Settings
Laura Linnan, Kimberly L. Peabody, Jennifer Wieland
Workplace Health Promotion—1970 to the Present
Resources and Tools 374
Challenges 379
Career Opportunities 385
370
369
CONTENTS
VII
15. Promoting Community Health: Local Health Departments
and Community Health Organizations 393
Michael T. Hatcher, Diane D. Allensworth, Frances D. Butterfoss
Brief History of Local Health Organizations 394
Local Health Department Services 397
Community Health Organization Services 401
Resources and Tools 404
Challenges 410
Career Opportunities 414
Glossary 421
Index 443
F I G U R E S , TA B L E S ,
AND EXHIBITS
Figures
1.1
1.2
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.1
5.2
6.1
6.2
6.3
Health Promotion Interactions
Action Model to Achieve the Overarching Goals of
Healthy People 2020
Educational Attainment in U.S. Population Aged Twenty-Five and
Over, by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Age (percentages)
Projected Population of the United States in 2010 and 2050, by
Race and Ethnicity (in millions)
Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Reasoned Action
PRECEDE-PROCEED Model
Comparisons to State and Federal Data
Data Comparisons to Subgroups
Factors in Decisions on Actions to Take After a Needs Assessment
Search Page on the Web Site of the National Registry of
Evidence-Based Programs and Practices
Home Page of the Research-Tested Intervention Programs
(RTIPs) Web Site
Schematic Logic Model
Logic Model for Preventing the Initiation of Tobacco
Use Among Young People
Abbreviated Gantt Chart of Educational Activities
12
14
32
36
62
72
110
110
113
134
135
158
159
163
FIGURES, TABLES, AND EXHIBITS
X
8.1 Health Education Resource for People with Diabetes
That Uses Plain Language Techniques
8.2 Four Test Concepts for a Community Program
8.3 Revisions of Two Concepts for a Community Program
After Audience Testing
10.1 Institute of Medicine’s Obesity Evaluation Framework
10.2 Program Evaluation Feedback Loop in the Circular
Evaluation Model
11.1 Credentialing of Individual Health Educators and
Professional Preparation Programs in the United States
12.1 Relationship Between Grades and Risk Behaviors
12.2 Coordinated School Health Programs
14.1 Projected Percentage Growth in U.S. Labor Force from
2002 to 2012, by Ethnic Origin
15.1 Organizational Chart of a Local Health Department
211
226
227
270
281
304
315
317
381
399
Tables
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
3.1
Ecological Health Perspective: Levels of Influence
Quality of Life Model from the Centre for Health Promotion
Components of Health Promotion Programs
People Below Poverty Level, by Race, 2006 (numbers in thousands)
Regional and National Blueprint Strategies
Constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory
of Reasoned Action
3.2 Transtheoretical Model Construct: Stages of Change
3.3 Constructs of Social Cognitive Theory
3.4 Subtypes of Social Support
3.5 Tailoring Messages
3.6 Concepts in the Diffusion of Innovations Model and
Illustrations of Their Application
3.7 Description of the MATCH Model
3.8 Community Readiness Model
3.9 Differentiating Social Marketing from Commercial Marketing
3.10 Foundational Health Promotion Theories: Focus and Key Concepts
3.11 Using Theory to Plan Multilevel Interventions
3.12 Models and Key Concepts for Developing
Health Promotion Programs
4.1 Sample Sizes for Two Levels of Sampling Error at the 95 Percent
Confidence Interval
6
11
16
31
42
62
63
65
67
68
69
76
78
80
80
82
83
105
FIGURES, TABLES, AND EXHIBITS
4.2 Process for Determining Health Priorities
5.1 Typology of Health Promotion Interventions
5.2 Core Component Analysis for an Intervention to Prevent
Substance Abuse in an Elementary School
6.1 Applicant Screening Grid
7.1 Key Advocacy Terms
7.2 Advocacy Organizations and Web Sites
8.1 Examples of the Process of Planning Health Communication
in Various Settings
9.1 Primary Funding Sources for Health Promotion
Programs, by Program Participants and Setting
9.2 Overview of a Grant Proposal
10.1 RE-AIM Dimensions and Template Questions for Evaluating
Health Promotion Programs
10.2 Experimental Design Options
10.3 Changes to Be Measured and Nutrition-Related
Examples of Data Collection Methods
10.4 The Evaluation Phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model
11.1 Health Promotion Program Interventions and
Sustainability Factors
12.1 External Sources of Data on Health and Health Promotion
15.1 Services of Local Health Departments, by Size of
Population Served (percentages)
15.2 Barriers to Community Engagement and Potential Solutions
XI
112
130
138
169
188
189
219
239
244
269
273
275
282
307
331
398
414
Exhibits
2.1
2.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.1
6.1
6.2
8.1
8.2
A Strategic Framework for Improving Racial/Ethnic Minority
Health and Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities
Examples of REACH Community Projects
Dimensions of Health
Interview or Focus Group Questions for a Community Assessment
Publicly Available Health Data Sources
Sample Smoke-Free Workplace Policy for New York City
Constructing an Action Plan That Documents Activities
Needed to Execute Strategies
Sample Interview Questions
Attributes of Effective Health Communication
Example of the Need for Plain but Comprehensive
Health Communication
40
44
94
100
108
140
156
170
206
207
FIGURES, TABLES, AND EXHIBITS
XII
8.3
8.4
8.5
9.1
10.1
11.1
12.1
12.2
13.1
13.2
14.1
14.2
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
Example of Text Before and After Rewriting in Plain Language
Sample Communication Objectives
VERB: An Example of the Use of Interactive Media
Board and Staff Members’ Fundraising Responsibilities
Evaluation Highlights for Community Trials Intervention
to Reduce High-Risk Drinking
Benefits of Partnerships
Coordinated School Health Program Showing K–12
Components Additional to School Curricula
National Health Education Standards
Selected Components of the Health Promotion
Program at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Four Core Concepts of Patient- and Family-Centered
Health Promotion Programs
Workplace Health Promotion at Lincoln Industries:
Go! Platinum Program
Job Description for the Director of a Corporate
Health Promotion Center
Types of Community Health Organizations
Health Promotion Programs in a Small Local Health Department
Ten Essential Public Health Services
Services of a Community Health Organization That Promotes
the Health of Senior Citizens in the Community
Services for Community Health Organizations Offered
by United Way of the Capital Region
Factors That Contribute to the Success of
Community Engagement Efforts
Community Health Organizations That Post Health
Promotion Jobs
210
213
216
253
278
296
320
328
346
349
372
388
396
399
400
402
411
413
416
PREFACE
The need for health promotion programs is all around us. Workers in hospitals, factories, businesses, schools, colleges, day care centers, government offices,
churches, health clinics, community centers, and local health departments are all
thinking about how to improve the lives and productivity of people where they
live, work, and play. And if you are working or planning to work in health education, public health, medicine, nursing, or any other health-related field, you’re
probably going to be involved with a health promotion program at some time.
In the process, you’ll use your clinical and professional expertise as well as academic training to develop and implement a plan to improve the health status of
individuals and populations as well as reduce the risk of persons becoming ill or
help restore their health. You’ll most likely be part of a team that is organizing a
health promotion program. At first, the concept of a program to improve or promote the health of people may sound a little intimidating. Ultimately, it becomes
clear that although the idea of a health promotion program is appealing and
seems worthwhile, turning the idea into reality demands work and expertise. In
other words, it is easy to say that something should be done or needs to be done.
It is very different to know how to design and implement a program to actually
achieve a specific health outcome or an improvement in the overall health status
of a specific population. It is a complex process.
Undergraduate and graduate programs that prepare professionals to work
in public health, health education, and health promotion and wellness have been
flourishing in the United States and throughout the world for more than half
a century. Thousands of students graduate every year with a baccalaureate or
advanced degree in health promotion and get jobs in schools, colleges, businesses,
health care facilities, community organizations, and government.
As the premier organization of professionals trained and working in health
education and health promotion, leaders of the Society for Public Health
Education (SOPHE) recognized the need for a book to help advance the field at the
PREFACE
XIV
undergraduate level. Escalating rates of chronic disease, soaring health care costs,
increasing diversity of the U.S. population, as well as aging of the current health
education workforce, all call for training a new generation of health promoters. The
SOPHE board of trustees, executive director, and members offer this book, which
combines the theoretical and practice base of the field with a step-by-step practical
section on how to develop, implement, and evaluate health promotion programs.
SOPHE hopes that this book, read in its entirety or in part, will help not only
undergraduate students who choose to major or minor in health education, health
promotion, community health, public health, or health-related fields (for example,
environmental health, physical activity, allied health, nursing, or medicine) but also
professionals already working who want to acquire the technical knowledge and
skills to develop successful health promotion programs. Acquiring the competencies to effectively plan, implement, and evaluate health promotion programs can
improve health outcomes, promote behavioral and social change, and contribute
to eliminating health disparities. This book offers a concise summary of the many
years of research in the fields of health education and health promotion, along with
the expertise of many SOPHE members working in diverse contemporary settings
and programs. The book also reflects SOPHE’s mission and its commitment to
professional preparation and continuing education for the purpose of improving
the quantity and quality of the lives of individuals and communities.
We are enormously grateful to the many SOPHE members who wrote this
book. Their expertise in many fields, including health education, public health,
sociology, anthropology, psychology, nursing, medicine, physical education, nutrition, allied health, and many others, have been braided into this health promotion
anthology. They have shared the foundations of the field as well as their own
practical experiences in health promotion planning. May this book help teach,
guide, inspire, catalyze, and transform students and professionals in their quest to
develop successful health promotion programs that address the health challenges
of both today and tomorrow.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Opportunities to prevent disease and to promote health are abundant. Promoting
health helps people to lead socially and economically productive lives. The goal
of the book is to provide a comprehensive introduction to health promotion programs by combining the theory and practice with a hands-on guide to program
planning, implementation, and evaluation. One of the fundamental premises of
this book is the importance of using an approach based in both research and
practice to guide and inform planning, implementation, and evaluation of health
promotion programs. A secondary goal of this book is to review the widespread
PREFACE
XV
opportunities to implement health promotion programs in schools, communities,
workplaces, and health care or …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment