Analysis In project analysis, we are to find the solution to the project before any design or coding is done. When the solution is found, part of the design is also done. To find the solution, we must answer the following questions: 1. What are the input data? 2. What are the sources of input data? 3. What are the output data? 4. What are the destinations of output data? 5. How do we convert the input data into output data? To answer these questions, we break our analysis into the following steps: a. Identify all outside systems with which this system interfaces. b. Identify all input data and the source(s) of these input data. c. Identify all output data and the destinations of these data. d. Identify the data processing function of this system: this system receives such input from such outside system; then it follows this process to output such data to such outside system. e. Based on the data processing step, break the system into sub-systems, each dedicated to a single task (specify the task that each subsystem does). These subsystems together show the data processing function that converts the input data into output data. f. Identify interface data between each subsystem (and which subsystem processes the inputs, which subsystem does the output). g. Check the solution against the requirements. h. Identify risks in your solution and possible ways to mitigate those risks i. Identify possible enhancements (new features) to the system; this is a way to get future work. j. For this course, you should update to the Project Plan by listing each sub-system in the Design and the Implementation and Test sections (together with specified dates and personnel). Possible enhancements: add buttons for heating various popular packages such as popcorn, frozen beef dinner, frozen pork dinner, frozen chicken dinner, frozen fish dinner, frozen vegetables dinner. Possible risks and risk mitigation:the system might not function in extreme hot or extreme cold temperature. Possible risk mitigation: wrap the system in a temperature insulation blanket without blocking the air flow.
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Project Analysis:
I) Analysis
In project analysis, we are to find the solution to the project before any design or coding is
done. When the solution is found, part of the design is also done. To find the solution, we
must answer the following questions:
1. What are the input data?
2. What are the sources of input data?
3. What are the output data?
4. What are the destinations of output data?
5. How do we convert the input data into output data?
To answer these questions, we break our analysis into the following steps:
a. Identify all outside systems with which this system interfaces.
b. Identify all input data and the source(s) of these input data.
c. Identify all output data and the destinations of these data.
d. Identify the data processing function of this system: this system receives such input
from such outside system; then it follows this process to output such data to such
outside system.
e. Based on the data processing step, break the system into sub-systems, each dedicated
to a single task (specify the task that each subsystem does). These subsystems
together show the data processing function that converts the input data into output
data.
f. Identify interface data between each subsystem (and which subsystem processes the
inputs, which subsystem does the output).
g. Check the solution against the requirements.
h. Identify risks in your solution and possible ways to mitigate those risks
i. Identify possible enhancements (new features) to the system; this is a way to get
future work.
j. For this course, you should update to the Project Plan by listing each sub-system in
the Design and the Implementation and Test sections (together with specified dates
and personnel).
Example: we want to analyze a microwave oven example in the previous week.
Its functional
requirements are repeated here for convenience:
Requirement #
1
2
3
4
Description
This microwave oven shall be able to heat a TV dinner
This microwave oven shall allow the user to enter the heating time
This microwave oven shall allow the user to enter the power level
This microwave oven shall allow the user to turn the table on or off
5
6
This microwave oven shall display the remaining heating time
This microwave oven shall give an indication when it is done
First, we must find the solution to our problem by answer the questions regarding input data,
output data and processing function to convert input data into output data. We identify the
followings:
a. Outside system: the user
b. Input data: power level, turn table on/off and heating time; these data are input from the
user
c. Output data: remaining heating time and ‘Food is Ready’ message (when done); these
data are displayed to the user
d. Data Processing: heat the food per power level; count down and display the heating time
until zero, then display the done message; rotate the turn table if on.
The context diagram is shown in Figure 1. This diagram shows the outside system, the input
and output data.
Figure 1
Context diagram
User
Power level; time;
table on/off
Microwave
system
Display count-down timer;
‘Food is ready’ message
Based on the data processing step, we break down our system into the following subsystems:
Input, MicroWaveHeat, Timer, TurnTable and Display. These subsystems are necessary to
perform the data processing function that converts the input data into output data. The
subsystem diagram in Figure 2 shows the relationship among these subsystems. Notice that in
the subsystem diagram, all features of the context diagram remain; only the microwave system is
expanded to show its internal components. Also, on all diagrams, arrows are labeled so that the
readers know the data that are passed from one component to the other.
Figure 2
Subsystem diagram
User
Display count-down timer;
‘Food is ready’ message
Power level; time;
table on/off
Microwave
System
Input subsystem
Power level
Microwave
heat
On/Off
Time
Turn
Table
Timer
Off
Done
Timer value; done
Display
Following are the descriptions of the subsystems:
a) Input subsystem: this subsystem receives the following input data from the user: power
level, timer value and turn table on or off.
b) The Microwave heat subsystem is a third-party system. It receives the power level from
the Input subsystem and turns on the micro-wave heating unit for that power level. One
receiving the ‘Done’ signal from the Timer, it will stop. To heat a TV dinner properly, we
choose a unit with a maximum power of 1200W.
c) The Timer subsystem receives the timer value from the Input subsystem. It decrements this
value one second at a time and sends the count-down value to the Display subsystem.
When the count-down value reaches zero, it sends a ‘Done’ message to both the
Microwave Heat, Turn Table subsystems and to the display.
d) The Turn Table subsystem receives the ON command from the Input subsystem and turns
the table accordingly. Once receiving the ‘Off’ signal from the Timer, it will stop turning
the table.
e) The Display subsystem displays the current count-down value received from the Timer
subsystem, and it displays the message ‘Food is ready’ when receiving the ‘Done’ message
from the Timer.
The following table lists the subsystems that implement the requirements.
Requirement #
Subsystems
1
2
3
4
5
6
Input, Microwave Heat
Input, Timer
Input, Microwave Heat
Input, Turn Table
Timer, Display
Timer, Display
Possible enhancements: add buttons for heating various popular packages such as popcorn,
frozen beef dinner, frozen pork dinner, frozen chicken dinner, frozen fish dinner, frozen
vegetables dinner.
Possible risks and risk mitigation: the system might not function in extreme hot or extreme
cold temperature. Possible risk mitigation: wrap the system in a temperature insulation blanket
without blocking the air flow.
Note: if it is possible to list the vendor/part numbers that are used in the implementation, then do
so (for example, the part number for the microwave heat subsystem).
This concludes the analysis document. The next section is an example of what happens after
other teams review your analysis document and give suggestions and how your team reacts to
those suggestions (i.e. the Analysis Review section is not part of the Project Analysis document).
II) Analysis Peer Review:
Once you have the Analysis done, it is time for your colleagues/other groups to peer-review and
to make recommendations. Suppose that after reviewing, other groups give the following
recommendations to the analysis document:
a) Add Start and Stop buttons
b) Add light inside the oven and light it up during heating
c) Add beep sound when the heating is done
d) Add music while heating
Your group reviews the recommendations, and after much internal discussing, your group
decides to incorporate the first three recommendations but rejects the last one because it will add
too much extra cost to the final product. So, your revised subsystem diagram will look
something like Figure 3.
Figure 3
Revised subsystem diagram
User
Display count-down timer;
‘Food is ready’ message
Power level; time;
Start/Stop
Microwave
System
Input subsystem
Power level; start/ Stop
Microwave
heat
Start/Stop; on/off
Time; start/ stop
Turn
Table
Timer
done
Done
Timer value; Start/stop;done
Light
Display
BeepSound
Your group then revises the group analysis document accordingly. I would like to make
a note here that, as you can see, it is much easier to make modifications to your solution
at this stage than after all coding is done.

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