1. Remove the plagiarism to below 15% without changing the science. You need a good knowledge of thermoelectric properties of a material. Do NOT use a software, and do not interfere with the references. 2. Correct grammatical mistakes.
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by Edward M
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SIMILARIT Y INDEX
INT ERNET SOURCES
ST UDENT PAPERS
Kai-Xuan Chen, Min-Shan Li, Dong-Chuan Mo,
Shu-Shen Lyu. “Nanostructural thermoelectric
materials and their performance”, Frontiers in
Jing Wu, Yabin Chen, Junqiao Wu, Kedar
Hippalgaonkar. “Perspectives on
Thermoelectricity in Layered and 2D Materials”,
Advanced Electronic Materials, 2018
The Figure of merit (ZT), is defined as S2σT/κ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the
electrical conductivity, and κ is the thermal conductivity, including both from electrons (κe) and
lattice vibrations (phonons, κL) as heat carriers at a thermodynamic temperature, T. The optimization
of these three parameters (S, σ, κ) to achieve high ZT has become the key challenge due to their
interdependence . They are all strongly dependent on the material’s electronic structure and carrier
Several researchers have attempted to increase ZT by lowering κ and increasing σ. Zhao et
al.  achieved dual control of phonon- and electron-transport properties by embedding
nanoparticles of a soft magnetic material in a thermoelectric matrix and thereby improved the
thermoelectric performance of the resulting nanocomposites. Pei el al.  found that PbTe with
nanoscale Ag2Te precipitates and La doping had a low lattice thermal conductivity κ. In the work of
Johnsen et al. the nanostructuring in (PbS)1–x(PbTe)x samples led to substantial decreases in
lattice thermal conductivity relative to pristine PbS. Gahtori et al.  reported a ZTof 2.1 at 973 K in
Cu2Se with different nanoscale dimensional defect features, in which the low thermal conductivity
origined from the enhanced low-to-high wavelength phonon scattering by different kinds of defects.
Ahmad et al. reported a ZT of 1.81 at 1100 K in p-type SiGe alloys since YSi2 nanoinclusions
formed coherent inter-faces with SiGe matrix and facilitated reduction in the grainsize of SiGe,
which greatly reduced the thermal conductivity κ.
In addition, other researchers conducted a lot of research in reducing the thermal conductivity
in the systems of grapheme , .
The electrical properties can be tuned as well to enhance the thermoelectric properties. The
electrical conductivity can usually be increased by enhancing the electron mobility or altering the
electronic structures. Nanostructur- ing can enhance the density of states near Fermi level via
quantum confinement, and therefore, increase the thermo- power, which provides a way to decouple
the thermopower and electrical conductivity . For example, Ginting et al. synthesized
composites with nano-inclusions of n- type (PbTe0.93 – xSe0.07Clx)0.93(PbS)0.07 while the
composites with nano-inclusions enhanced the Seebeck coefficient in a dilute Cl-doped compound
and led to a ZT of 1.52 at 700 K.
Li et al.  synthesized SnTe particles with controlled sizes from micro-scale to nano-scale
and found that the ZT of the specimen using 165-nm-sized nano- particles was about 2.3 times that
of the SnTe bulk samples due to the enhanced phonon scattering.
J. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Wu, and K. Hippalgaonkar, “Perspectives on Thermoelectricity in Layered
and 2D Materials,” vol. 1800248, pp. 1–18, 2018.
W. Zhao et al., “Superparamagnetic enhancement of thermoelectric performance,” Nature,
vol. 549, no. 7671, pp. 247–251, 2017.
Y. Pei, J. Lensch-Falk, E. S. Toberer, D. L. Medlin, and G. J. Snyder, “High thermoelectric
performance in PbTe due to large nanoscale Ag 2Te precipitates and la doping,” Adv. Funct.
Mater., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 241–249, 2011.
S. Johnsen et al., “supporting information of Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric
performance of PbS.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 133, no. 10, pp. 3460–70, 2011.
B. Gahtori et al., “Giant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of copper selenide by
incorporation of different nanoscale dimensional defect features,” Nano Energy, vol. 13, pp.
S. Ahmad et al., “Boosting thermoelectric performance of p-type SiGe alloys through in-situ
metallic YSi2 nanoinclusions,” Nano Energy, vol. 27, pp. 282–297, 2016.
G. H. Kim, D. H. Hwang, and S. I. Woo, “Thermoelectric properties of nanocomposite thin
films prepared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) and graphene,”
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 3530–3536, 2012.
H. Sevinçli, C. Sevik, T. Çain, and G. Cuniberti, “A bottom-up route to enhance
thermoelectric figures of merit in graphene nanoribbons,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, pp. 1–6, 2013.
Z. G. Chen, G. Hana, L. Yanga, L. Cheng, and J. Zou, “Nanostructured thermoelectric
materials: Current research and future challenge,” Prog. Nat. Sci. Mater. Int., vol. 22, no. 6,
pp. 535–549, 2012.
 D. Ginting et al., “High thermoelectric performance due to nano-inclusions and randomly
distributed interface potentials in N-type (PbTe0.93-:XSe0.07Clx)0.93(PbS)0.07composites,”
J. Mater. Chem. A, vol. 5, no. 26, pp. 13535–13543, 2017.
 Z. Li et al., “Systhesizing SnTe nanocrystals leading to thermoelectric performance
enhancement via an ultra-fast microwave hydrothermal method,” Nano Energy, vol. 28, pp.
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