Lecture 1: Chapter 1 Question Review the section in your textbook called “Personality and the Social Media” in Chapter 1, beginning on page 6. Answer the following three questions, which appear on page 6. For each reply, use a real-life example to demonstrate support for your position.1. Do we present our real selves on social media?2. Does the use of social media influence or change our personalities?3. Do people with different personalities use social media in different ways? Lecture 2: Chapter 2 QuestionSelect a topic of interest from Lecture 2/Chapter 2 of your textbook. Then find an interesting educational video on YouTube about the topic. The video should be at least 5 minutes long. After watching the video, answer the following questions. State your topic:Provide a link:1. Using your textbook and/or lecture notes, briefly summarize the topic you chose. Include a rationale for selecting the topic.2. Give a detailed explanation of the video and its relevance to your topic. 3. What is the most important information that you learned from the video, and how can it help you manage aspects of your personality that may cause you anxiety?
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Theories of Personality
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ELEVENTH EDITION
Theories of Personality
DUANE P . SCHULTZ
University of South Florida
SYDNEY ELLEN SCHULTZ
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States
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Theories of Personality, Eleventh Edition
Duane P. Schultz and
Sydney Ellen Schultz
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2015915554
Student Edition:
ISBN: 978-1-305-65295-8
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brief Contents
Preface
CHAPTER
1
xiii
Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care
1
The Psychoanalytic Approach 35
CHAPTER
2
Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis
37
The Neo-psychoanalytic Approach
79
CHAPTER
3
Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology
CHAPTER
4
Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology
CHAPTER
5
Karen Horney: Neurotic Needs and Trends
The Life-Span Approach
CHAPTER
6
Erik Erikson: Identity Theory
81
108
135
157
159
The Genetics Approach 191
CHAPTER
7
Gordon Allport: Motivation and Personality
CHAPTER
8
Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, the Five-Factor Theory, HEXACO,
and the Dark Triad 213
The Humanistic Approach
CHAPTER
9
CHAPTER
10
CHAPTER
11
Carl Rogers: Self-Actualization Theory
12
247
271
291
George Kelly: Personal Construct Theory
The Behavioral Approach
CHAPTER
245
Abraham Maslow: Needs-Hierarchy Theory
The Cognitive Approach
193
293
315
B. F. Skinner: Reinforcement Theory
317
The Social-Learning Approach 339
CHAPTER
13
Albert Bandura: Modeling Theory
341
v
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vi Brief Contents
The Limited-Domain Approach
369
CHAPTER
14
Facets of Personality: Taking Control, Taking Chances, and Finding
Happiness 371
CHAPTER
15
Personality in Perspective
407
Glossary 419
References 425
Author Index 475
Subject Index 492
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
contents
Preface
CHAPTER
1
xiii
Personality: What It Is and Why You Should Care
Take a Look at the Word
1
Research in the Study of Personality
24
The Role of Theory in Personality Theories
29
Questions about Human Nature: What Are We Like?
Chapter Summary
33
Review Questions
33
Suggested Readings
2
Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis
The Life of Freud (1856–1939)
Freud Comes to America
The Final Years
35
37
38
42
42
Instincts: The Propelling Forces of the Personality
The Levels of Personality
Anxiety: A Threat to the Ego
Defenses against Anxiety
45
47
49
Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
Questions about Human Nature
58
Criticisms of Freud’s Research
60
Extensions of Freudian Theory
73
Reflections on Freud’s Theory
76
Review Questions
77
Suggested Readings
74
78
The Neo-psychoanalytic Approach
3
Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology
The Life of Jung (1875–1961)
79
81
82
Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System
Aspects of Personality
51
57
Assessment in Freud’s Theory
Chapter Summary
43
44
The Structure of Personality
CHAPTER
31
34
The Psychoanalytic Approach
CHAPTER
1
86
87
The Development of the Personality
Questions about Human Nature
93
96
vii
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viii
Contents
Assessment in Jung’s Theory
Research on Jung’s Theory

97
100
Reflections on Jung’s Theory
Chapter Summary
106
Review Questions
106
Suggested Readings
CHAPTER
4
105
107
Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology
The Life of Adler (1870–1937)
108
109
Inferiority Feelings: The Source of All Human Striving
Striving for Superiority, or Perfection
The Style of Life
Social Interest
Birth Order
114
116
117
Questions about Human Nature
120
Assessment in Adler’s Theory
Research on Adler’s Theory
120
123
Reflections on Adler’s Theory
Chapter Summary
133
Review Questions
133
Suggested Readings
CHAPTER
5
130
134
136
The Childhood Need for Safety and Security
Basic Anxiety: The Foundation of Neurosis
Neurotic Needs
139
140
141
The Idealized Self-Image
Feminine Psychology
145
146
Questions about Human Nature
149
Assessment in Horney’s Theory
Research on Horney’s Theory
150
151
Reflections on Horney’s Theory
Chapter Summary
154
Review Questions
155
Suggested Readings
6
135
Karen Horney: Neurotic Needs and Trends
The Life of Horney (1885–1952)
CHAPTER
111
113
153
155
The Life-Span Approach
157
Erik Erikson: Identity Theory
159
The Life of Erikson (1902–1994)
160
Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development
Basic Weaknesses
162
170
Questions about Human Nature
Assessment in Erikson’s Theory
Research on Erikson’s Theory
170
171
172
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Contents ix
Reflections on Erikson’s Theory
Chapter Summary
189
Review Questions
189
Suggested Readings
188
190
191
The Genetics Approach
CHAPTER
7
Gordon Allport: Motivation and Personality
193
Allport Brings Personality into the Classroom and the Psychology Lab
The Life of Allport (1897–1967)
The Nature of Personality
Personality Traits
196
197
Motivation: What We Strive for
198
Personality Development in Childhood: The Unique Self
The Healthy Adult Personality
Assessment in Allport’s Theory
205
Reflections on Allport’s Theory
211
Review Questions
211
CHAPTER
8
203
204
Research on Allport’s Theory
Chapter Summary
200
202
Questions about Human Nature
Suggested Readings
193
194
210
212
Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, the Five-Factor Theory, HEXACO,
and the Dark Triad 213
Predicting Behavior
214
The Life of Cattell (1905–1998)
214
Cattell’s Approach to Personality Traits
216
Source Traits: The Basic Factors of Personality
Dynamic Traits: The Motivating Forces
Stages of Personality Development
Questions about Human Nature
Assessment in Cattell’s Theory
Research on Cattell’s Theory
219
221
222
223
Reflections on Cattell’s Theory
Behavioral Genetics
218
219
225
226
Hans Eysenck (1916–1997)
226
The Dimensions of Personality
226
Robert McCrae and Paul Costa: The Five-Factor Model
230
Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee: HEXACO: The Six-Factor Model
239
Delroy Paulhus and Kevin Williams: The Dark Triad of
Personality 240
Personality Traits and the Internet
241
Reflections on the Trait Approach
242
Chapter Summary
242
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
x
Contents
Review Questions
Suggested Readings
243
243
245
The Humanistic Approach
CHAPTER
9
247
Abraham Maslow: Needs-Hierarchy Theory
The Life of Maslow (1908–1970)
248
Personality Development: The Hierarchy of Needs
The Study of Self-Actualizers
255
Questions about Human Nature
260
Assessment in Maslow’s Theory
261
Research on Maslow’s Theory
262
Reflections on Maslow’s Theory
Chapter Summary
239
Review Questions
270
Suggested Readings
CHAPTER
10
238
270
271
Carl Rogers: Self-Actualization Theory
The Life of Rogers (1902–1987)
272
The Self and the Tendency toward Actualization
The Experiential World
276
Characteristics of Fully Functioning Persons
Questions about Human Nature
Research on Rogers’s Theory
282
283
Reflections on Rogers’s Theory
289
Review Questions
289
288
290
291
The Cognitive Approach
CHAPTER
11
279
281
Assessment in Rogers’s Theory
Chapter Summary
George Kelly: Personal Construct Theory
The Cognitive Movement in Psychology
The Life of Kelly (1905–1967)
Personal Construct Theory
295
Questions about Human Nature
Assessment in Kelly’s Theory
Research on Kelly’s Theory
Reflections on Kelly’s Theory
Chapter Summary
313
Review Questions
313
293
293
297
Ways of Anticipating Life Events
Suggested Readings
274
276
The Development of the Self in Childhood
Suggested Readings
250
398
304
304
308
312
314
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents xi
The Behavioral Approach
CHAPTER
12
315
317
B. F. Skinner: Reinforcement Theory
Rats, Pigeons, and an Empty Organism
The Life of Skinner (1904–1990)
317
318
Reinforcement: The Basis of Behavior
321
Operant Conditioning and the Skinner Box
Schedules of Reinforcement
The Shaping of Behavior
Superstitious Behavior
326
328
The Self-Control of Behavior
329
Applications of Operant Conditioning
Questions about Human Nature
332
Assessment in Skinner’s Theory
333
Research on Skinner’s Theory
337
Review Questions
337
Suggested Readings
330
334
Reflections on Skinner’s Theory
Chapter Summary
335
338
339
The Social-Learning Approach
CHAPTER
13
323
324
341
Albert Bandura: Modeling Theory
The Life of Bandura (1925–)
342
Modeling: The Basis of Observational Learning
The Processes of Observational Learning
Self-Reinforcement and Self-Efficacy
Developmental Stages of Self-Efficacy
Behavior Modification
Assessment in Bandura’s Theory
Research on Bandura’s Theory
Reflections on Bandura’s Theory
367
Review Questions
368
Suggested Readings
350
353
354
Questions about Human Nature
Chapter Summary
357
357
357
366
368
The Limited-Domain Approach
CHAPTER
14
343
348
369
Facets of Personality: Taking Control, Taking Chances, and Finding
Happiness 371
Julian Rotter: Locus of Control
372
Marvin Zuckerman: Sensation Seeking
378
Martin E. P. Seligman: Learned Helplessness and the Optimistic/Pessimistic
Explanatory Style 385
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xii
Contents
Martin Seligman: Positive Psychology
Chapter Summary
404
Review Questions
405
Suggested Readings
CHAPTER
15
405
Personality in Perspective
The Genetic Factor
The Learning Factor
410
The Parental Factor
411
The Developmental Factor
The Consciousness Factor
The Unconscious Factor
Review Questions
407
407
The Environmental Factor
Final Comment
395
408
413
416
416
417
417
Glossary 419
References 425
Author Index 475
Subject Index 492
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
preface to the Eleventh Edition
Each edition of a textbook must be as vital, dynamic, and responsive to change as the
field it covers. To remain an effective teaching instrument, it must reflect the development of the field and continue to challenge its readers. We have seen the focus of personality study shift from global theories, beginning with Sigmund Freud’s 19th-century
psychoanalytic theory of neuroses, to 21st-century explorations of more limited personality facets or dimensions. And we have seen the basis of personality exploration change
from case studies of emotionally disturbed persons to more scientifically based research
with diverse populations. Contemporary work in the field reflects differences in gender,
age, and sexual orientation as well as ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural heritage.
New and Expanded Coverage
New biographical material has been in …
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