1. What decisions are determined if any? Why? Give an example. What decisions are genuinely free if any and why? Give an example.Solomon on Freedom week 9 p. 231-2422.What are the 2 principles of justice for John Rawls? What policy could reduce inequality? Does this policy interfere with individual liberty? If so or if not, why is that the case?Solomon on Justice week 11 p. 294-2973. Given the egocentric predicament how can we know if there is an external world or not? If so, how? If not, why not?Solomon on Self Week 7 p.194-196 and Truth Week 13 p. 152-154, 168-169 I upload three files down here with the specific name that you can use as source.




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Multilingualism in a country with one official language and in a country
with more than one official languages:
Parsa Hajy Abbasi
As a traveler going across countries I found great interest in language and cultures. While in
enrolled in the Language class I had the opportunity to learn about countries which are
multilingual and also learnt a lot about their status of official language and languages spoen
within the country and the difference in both. While in my travels I always wondered what it
is that gets nations to decide on the most efficient form of communication and how they
come upon their decisions of what language to use for official documentation. Hence, the
language class educated me with many information that answered many of my questions as
such. This motivated my interest in my final paper and the reason why I chose this specific
subject to write about.
Many languages are spoken today across the globe and many have emerged locally within
each country up until today. But once gathered in data together, the relativeness of such
languages emerges, and so does the importance of identifying common ground within
languages spoken in all countries, and identifying a single way of communication to connect.
This is where the identification of official language for each country is important. Although
some countries have recognized English their official language due to its colonial history, as
well as its value as a world language and international lingua franca (Holmes, Chapter 5,
National Languages and Language Planning-PG#101), they possess their own local
language which is also spoken throughout the country frequently in business and daily basis
actions. Such countries include Malaysia and the variety of Malay languages spoken in the
country. But there are countries whom possess only one language and recognize the same
as the official language of the country, such as Iran whom recognizes Persian as their official
language. Persian is spoken across Iran in many forms and dialects and has also influenced
many countries around it. A variety of Persian dialects are spoken such as Abadani, Tehrani,
Esfehani, Qazvini and many more. There are dialects of Persian that are spoken in countries
such as Afghanistan and Tajikistan where these dialects may be separate languages. A
member of macro language Persian (Ethnologue-Persian Language
Although English is the most frequent language heard across Malaysia, there is a lot of local
language spoken and easily heard daily as frequent as English. English has become the
official language of Malaysia. A country that is in large economical business and has a great
influence in the economic aspects of the world with the possession of world trade center
authority at the Petronas towers. This means that many businesses in the country are also
connected internationally and require a daily communication of English. This has led
Malaysia to a great success in the country economically and has completely applied the
English language locally for many local speakers. But although recognized as official, English
is not the local language in Malaysia and many locals and citizens communicate using their
language. The Malay language has 3 dialects most commonly spoken across and these 3
include Malay-Malay, Indian-Malay and Chinese-Malay due to the diverse locality in
Malaysia with many mixes of Indian and Chinese. On daily interactions within businesses,
public transport, shopping areas and personal life local languages are spoken as frequent as
English. Often most of the population is Bi-lingual and has the ability to speak both their
local and the English language. Schools all provide a course of English throughout the school
years teaching the students English in order for them to become fluent. The number of
individual languages listed for Malaysia is 136. Of these, 134 are living and 2 are extinct. Of
the living languages, 112 are indigenous and 22 are non-indigenous. Furthermore, 11 are
institutional, 6 are developing, 7 are vigorous, 95 are in trouble, and 15 are dying
(Ethnologue-Malaysia- https://www.ethnologue.com/country/MY). Malaysia is a great
example of a multilingual country with more than one official language listing its official
languages as 2 Being English and Malay.
Iran has come from a great past with a history of more than five thousand years where
many languages were communicated throughout the timeline of its existence from the
Persian empire till today. But at the moment Iran, Labeled as the Islamic Republic of Iran,
has recognized Persian with the alphabetic script driven from Arabic script as its official
language. Persian also serves as the local language in the country. Although many are fluent
in English, across the streets of Iran and in a daily business life it is not easy to speak English
as the most frequent way of communication for all is Persian. Hence, English is not
recognized as much in Iran as it is in compared to Malaysia where communication is easy
due to the majority populations ability to speak English. But Persian has influenced many
countries around its region and many dialects which have turned into their own status of
language are now recognized as official languages in countries such as Afghanistan and
These differences bring along a variety of advantages and disadvantages to both countries
and they are very influential in many statuses of both countries creating visible differences
between the two countries. For example a tourist in Iran would not be able to communicate
easily throughout the city as English is not very frequent in all of the population, where as in
Malaysia, tourists can easily find their way around and make conversation as everyting is
also set up in English and the majority of population speaks English. But there are times
where difficulty is met in Malaysia where locals have no understanding of English or other
types of Malay speaking languages except their specific one, and in Iran, if a local language
is spoken throughout the whole country, all have the ability to understand and
communicate with each other.
In conclusion, such countries have grown in many different ways and they are shaped with a
huge impact from language and communication. Serving as the biggest form of
communication, the influence of language is clearly spotted in such cases comparing a
country with more then one official language and ones with more then one. These official
languages also show in what language all documents, records, data, journals and many
more forms of data keeping and communication is written and understood in. creating a
huge dimension in linguistic usage in different countries and their ways of communication
and documentation.
Crystal-Multilangusim/official languages
Holmes chapter 5- national languages and language planning

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