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Unit III Homework
Blood Typing
Introduction
Blood typing is critical in medicine. If a person receives the wrong type of blood, they can die. The
purpose of this homework is to allow you to determine what types of blood can be given to specific
patients.
ABO and Rh Blood Typing
Blood typing is discussed on pages 176–178 of the textbook, but let’s skip the genetics of it for now.
First, let’s just focus on the ABO grouping and then we’ll look at the Rh grouping. There are two possible
antigens on your red blood cells (RBC), A or B. You can have one of each, both, or none. Therefore,
possible ABO blood types are A, B, AB, or O. Now, if you have an antigen on your RBCs, then you will
not make antibodies against the antigen. However, you will have antibodies against the antigen you do
not have. It is as if you are allergic to the opposite blood type. For example, a person with A antigens
(blood type A) will make antibodies to antigen B, since that person does not have B antigens. Therefore,
people with blood type A cannot receive type B blood because they have antibodies against B. A person
with B blood will make antibodies against A. What do AB people do? The have both antigens, so they do
not make antibodies at all. With no antibodies, can they receive type A blood? Sure, and they can receive
blood from type B and type O people as well. With no antibodies, they are not “allergic” to any blood type.
Let’s look at people with type O blood. They have no antigens, and they make antibodies against A and
B. They are allergic to all blood with any antigens; therefore, they can accept blood only from other O
people.
Got it? To recap, your blood type depends on the antigens on your red blood cells. You cannot make
antibodies against your own cells, but you do make antibodies against the missing antigens. So, A makes
antibodies against B, B makes antibodies against A, AB makes no antibodies, and O makes antibodies
against both A and B. Remember now that O blood has no antigens, so a person with A or B blood can
accept blood from type O people. Type A makes antibodies against B, but O blood does not have B
antigens. Likewise, type B can accept from type O; however, type O makes antibodies against A and B
and, therefore, can accept blood only if it has not antigens: type O blood.
Rh is the same thing but easier. You are either positive or negative. Either you have the Rh antigen or
you do not. Either you make antibodies or you do not. A person who is Rh positive does not make
antibodies. A person who is Rh negative makes antibodies against Rh. Therefore, an Rh-positive person
can accept blood from either Rh-positive or Rh-negative people (they have no antibodies), but Rhnegative people can accept only from other Rh-negative people because they make antibodies against
Rh.
Now combine the two concepts. At one extreme, AB positive people make no antibodies (because they
have the antigens and cannot be allergic to their own blood) and can accept blood from anyone. At the
other extreme, O-negative people make antibodies against A, B, and Rh meaning they can accept blood
from no one, except other O-negative people. In between, a person with A-positive blood makes
antibodies against B but not Rh. Therefore, they can accept from A or O and Rh-positive or negative. Try
to figure out B people.
Be aware that the antibodies are not present in donated blood. When giving your answer to the blood
type section, do not forget to include the Rh factor.
Objectives
1. Determine blood types that blood groups can receive.
Directions
1. Type your answers directly on the data sheet.
2. Select Save As, and use your last name and student ID as a file name.
3. Upload the data sheet as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf file when finished.
Questions: Questions 1-10 are short answer questions and should be answered in complete
sentences. Total: 100 points
1. The first patient has type O+ blood. Which antigens does this person have on his/her red blood
cells? (including Rh) (10 points)
2. List ALL blood types that can be given to a patient with the type of blood that the patient in
question one has.
(10 points)
3. The second patient has A+ blood type. Which antigens does this person have on her red blood
cells? (Including Rh) (10 points)
4. List ALL blood types that can be given to a patient with the type of blood that the second patient
has.
(10 points)
5. The third patient has AB- blood type. Which antigens does this person have on her red blood
cells? (including Rh) (10 points)
6. List ALL blood types that can be given to a patient with the type of blood that the third patient has.
(10 points)
7. Which blood type is the universal blood recipient? (Can receive all blood types) (10 points)
8. Which blood type is the universal donor? (10 points)
9. Can a person with type O blood receive any other blood type besides type O? Why?(10 points)
10. Can a patient with Rh- blood receive Rh+ blood without rejecting it? Explain why. (10 points)

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