1900 ~ 2100 wordsthis module is called Psychoanalytic Perspectives of Infancy and Early Childhood.Please use Harvard style for the referencing (need around 15 references in total). And thanks in advance!!!Students are expected to use the content covered in the module in a critically reflexive
way to respond to What is mind? And this question which explores student capacity to
apply what they have learned from a general appreciation of the module content, will
enable the successful achievement of all aims and learning outcomes.A working definition for this essayMind refers to the part of a person that enables them to think, feel emotions and be aware of things.A clarificationYour brain is part of the visible, tangible world of the body. Your mind is part of the invisible, transcendent world of thought, feeling, attitude, belief and imagination. The brain is the physical organ most associated with mind and consciousness, but the mind is not confined to the brain.This essay requires students to apply their learning in a less proscribed way. It invites students to return to a theory (and theorist) that they found interesting to think in further detail and then to write about how that theorist and theory understands how an infant’s mind is shaped by experience within their early years. The psychoanalytic theories presented offer a complex description of the human mind and how it develops. Students are encouraged to draw on psychoanalytic perspectives that have been presented throughout the module to critically explore how mind is shaped by experiences in the early years of life. To do this, students will need to identify which theories presented throughout the module have been most impactful on their thinking and read around those theories to critically investigate what those theories assume about how the mind of a child develops through the early years. Points that could be addressed in this essay (you can choose three points to critically discuss in this essay)How does the theory understand links between early experience and the development of an infant’s mind (or their capacity to think, feel emotions and be aware of things)?What does the theory of your choice assume is conducive to healthy development?How does it see early development being disrupted?What key terms are introduced to describe important aspects of early experience and how they are experienced?To what degree does the theory (or theorist) offer a unique contribution or unique insight? How can the theory help parents and practitioners appreciate aspects of early experience?What are the limitations inherent in the theory presentedAnd I have uploaded some useful powerpoint below:1: What is Psychoanalysis?2: Freud1: The 3 Phases of Freud Theories3: Freud 2: Psychosexual Development 4: Lacan: Mirror Stage and the Influence of the
Symbolic5: Klein: Early Psychic Development6: Winnicott: The Facilitating Environment7: Attachment and Mentalisation8: Also, I have attached an reading called ‘The Paranoid Schizoid Position by Betty Joseph’ which is taken from the book introducing Psychoanalysis edited by Budd and Rusbridger, and it will be a helpful reference if focusing on the Klein’s theory. Thank you!!!
1_what_is_psychoanalysis_.pdf

2_the_three_phases_of_freud_s_theories.pptx

3_freud_psychosexual_development.pptx

4_lacan_s_theory.pptx

5_klien_s_theory.pptx

6_winnicott_the_facilitating_environment.pptx

1_what_is_psychoanalysis.pptx

1_what_is_psychoanalysis.pptx

2_the_three_phases_of_freud_s_theories.pptx

3_freud_psychosexual_development.pptx

4_lacan_s_theory.pptx

5_klein_s_theory.pptx

Unformatted Attachment Preview

WHAT IS
PSYCHOANALYSIS
?
Antony Williams
27th
September
What is Psychoanalysis?
4th October
Freud: The 3 Phases of Freud
Theories
11th
October
Freud 2: Psychosexual
Development
18th October
Lacan: Mirror Stage and the
Influence of the
Symbolic
25th
Klien: Early Psychic
Development
October
1st
November
NeuroPsychoanalysis
Tony
Williams
Tony
Williams
Introduction to
the module
Essay 1
Tony
Williams
Tony
Williams
Tony
Williams
Tom
Billington
Describe a
psychoanalytic
developmental
model of mind
highlighting the
contributions of a key
psychoanalytic
figure.
The subject of
Psychology
◦ Cogito ergo sum
◦ Descartes first wrote the phrase in
French in his 1637
◦ This proposition became a
fundamental element of Western
philosophy and underpinned the ‘I’
which became central to western
psychology
◦ The rational unitary ‘I’ was to
become the subject of psychology
Psychology and the Observed
Infant
◦ The infant whose behaviour is examined at the
very time of its occurrence.
◦ To relate observed behaviour to subjective
experience, one must make inferential leaps.
◦ At best the observations of an infants available
capacities can only help to define the limits of
subjective experience.
The growth in interest of the
Observed Infant
Initial contributions described
as anecdotal e.g. ‘A
biological sketch of an infant’
(1877) – Darwin
Observation grew during
1920s and 1930s, with natural
settings falling out of favour in
psychological research due to
lack of experimental rigor.
1920’ Piaget’s work on
genetic epistemology (i.e. the
origins of thinking)
Psychology/psychologists
moved to doing experiments
under laboratory conditions.
The observed infant
The observed infant is
also a special construct,
a description of
capacities that can be
observed directly: the
ability to move, to smile,
to seek novelty, to
discriminate the
mother’s face, to show
recognition.
As soon as try to make
inferences about the
actual experiences of
the real infant – that is,
to build in qualities of
subjective experience
such as a sense of self –
we are thrown back to
our own subjective
experience as the main
source of inspiration.
Different ways of
observing and its
impact on knowing
The raise (from the 1950’s
onward) of
epidemiological studies.
Observation of very large
numbers of infants,
children and young
people
J B Watson
(1878-1958)
◦ Give me a dozen healthy
infants, well-formed, and my
own specified world to bring
them up in and I’ll guarantee
to take any one at random
and train him to become any
type of specialist I might select
– doctor, lawyer, artist,
merchant, chief and yes even
begger-man and thief
regardless of his talents,
penchants, tendencies,
abilities, vocations and race
of his ancestors.
1928 – Psychological Care of
the Infant and Child
Jean Paiget
1896-1980
Research included studying his
own three children, and
carefully observing and
interpreting their cognitive
development.
PSYCHOANALYSIS
A very particular psychology
What is
psychoanalysis?
What do you know about:
◦ Psychoanalysis?
◦ The practice of
psychoanalysis and
psychoanalytic
psychotherapy with
children?
◦ The psychoanalytic theories
of child development?
Basics of
psychoanalytic
theory
Psychoanalysis is a
branch of psychology
particularly concerned
with subjective
experience. It has 3
aspects:
A body of
knowledge
about the
mind.
A method
for
investigating
the mind.
A form of
psychotherapeutic
treatment.
Key Figures
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
◦ Carl Jung (1875-1961)
◦ Melanie Klein (1882-1960)
◦ Anna Freud (1895-1982)
◦ Jacques Lacan (1901-1981)
◦ Donald Winnicott (18961971)
◦ Wilfred Bion (1897-1979)
◦ The first psychoanalytic patient. Seen by
Dr Josef Breuer in 1880 to 1882
Anna O
◦ Breuer with the help of Anna stumbled
upon a process of what Anna called
“chimney sweeping” which she
described as a “talking cure”
◦ Discussed with Sigmund Freud in 1883
“Each individual symptom was taken
separately in hand; all the occasions on
which it had appeared were described in
reverse order, starting before the time
when the patient became bed ridden
and going back to the event which had
led to its first appearance. When this has
been described the symptom
disappeared”
Resistance and working through
resistance
◦ This process of working
back to the original
(traumatic) event
greatly interested Freud
and became a central
tenet of the
psychoanalytic process.
Psychoanalytic Perspectives of
Infancy and Childhood
To be explored throughout this module
◦ The emergent method for appreciating the deeply subjective
nature of each individual mind.
◦ A method which has a therapeutic effect.
◦ Based on an appreciation of how past experiences shape
knowing and being.
A focus on:
◦ The emergent model of mind.
◦ The Unconscious
◦ Psychic defences against knowing
The Clinical Infant
The infant as
reconstructed by
psychoanalytic theories in
the course of clinical
practice (primarily with
adults).
The infant is the creation
of two people, the adult
who grew up to become
a psychiatric patient and
the therapist, who has a
theory about infant
experience.
Can approaches be
combined?
Can each infant validate or
invalidate the claims of the
other? I.E. Can evidence from
the observed infant (from
developmental psychology)
and the clinical infant (from
clinical psychoanalytic
practice) be combined or are
they about different realities,
with no common ground
To what extent are these
two infants the same?
Our own subjective
experience
The only storehouse accessible is our own life
narratives, what if felt like to live our own social
lives.
This is the domain of the clinical infant.
The subjective life of the adult, as self narrative or
as co-constructed is the main source of inference
about the felt quality of social experience – a
degree of circularity is unavoidable.
OBSERVING
BABIES
What do you
see?
Subjective
experience and
thinking
Psychological
determinism
▪ First Phase Up to 1897
▪ The affect-trauma
phase
▪ Theoretically it should be
▪ Second Phase 1897 –
▪ In practice impossible but led
▪ Third Phase 1923 –
possible to predict and to
explain a psychological ‘event’
in terms of all the forces
operative at the time and which
have operated in the past.
Freud to search for causes…
and the generation of laws and
principles that simplify but are
useful
1923
▪ The topographical
phase
1940
▪ The structural phase
▪ Up to 1987: The
affect Trauma
frame
▪ Early thinking
▪ Visit to Charcot
▪ The use of
hypnotism
▪ Studies in
Hysteria and
collaboration with
Breuer
▪ The splitting of affect and
idea(1897)
▪ Pleasure principle – An instinctive
FREUD
BREAKING
NEW GROUND
seeking of pleasure and avoiding
of pain in order to satisfy
biological and psychological
need.
▪ Drives – an energetic model. An
excitable state produced by
homeostatic disturbance.
▪ Libido – The energy thought of as
quantitatively variable and
measurable) of the sexual
instincts directed towards an
object.
Pathway of
discharge
bypassing
conscious
Conscious
Ego=
conscious
awareness
and source of
defence
Unconscious
Incompatible
ideas and
distressing
affects now
unconscious
Nervous disorders thought to
be related to pent-up affect
that could not be dealt with by
normal processes of
discharge.
The symptom in this model
represents a manifestation,
in a disguised form, of the
repressed affect and the
ideas attached to it.
Repression could be
successful….but..
Beyond a certain affect
charge an alternative
expression is required and
some sort of involuntary
symptom develops.
▪ In the history of
the
psychoanalytic
movement (1914)
Freud declared
that ‘the theory of
repression’ , or
defence, to give
its alternative
name, is the
cornerstone on
which the whole
structure of
psycho-analysis
rests.
▪ The model develops an
understanding of a mind in
conflict, e.g. between sexual
wishes of a primitive sort
and a persons ethical
standards must inevitably
and consistently arise and
that some sort of mental
solution is required.
▪ 1901 The Psychopathology
of Everyday Life
▪ Expressions of unconscious
impulses
▪ Freud came to the conclusion that many memories of sexual
seduction recalled by patients or reconstructed by him, were
not in fact real events after all.
▪ Freud:
Under the influence of the technical procedure which I used at
the time…childhood scenes in which they were sexually seduced
by some grown up person were produced….I believed these
stories….however I was at last obliged to recognise that these
scenes of seduction had never taken place and that they were
only phantasies which my patients had made up or which I
myself had perhaps forced upon them.
“Historical” (objective) truth ~ “Psychical” truth
▪ A repressed early wish-fulling daydream may find new
expression at a later date in a different form, a symptom, dream
or creative work of art.
▪ A move away from the theory of the traumatic origins of the
psychoneurosis to a focus on the ‘vicissitudes of the patients
inner strivings and of the struggle to deal with them.
1900 the publication of The Interpretation of Dreams
The development of psychological systems related spatially in
depth
System
Unconscious
Containing
instinctual drives
and wishes kept
from
consciousness
Secondary Process
Primary Process
descriptively unconscious
System
Preconscious
Contents are
not defended
against can
enter
consciousness
easily utilised
by the
individual
System
conscious
Contents are
conscious
▪ Freud’s orientation shifted away from adaptation to external
events and towards a focus on the way the individual adapts to
internal forces or drives.
▪ A key work of the second phases was The Essays on the Theory
of Sexuality.
▪ Instinct theory
Perverse tendencies present in everyone although defended
against. Offered the first developmental framework for
psychoanalysis.
▪ The primary
undifferentiated
pleasure-self or
undifferentiated
self/object.
▪ The dotted lines
indicate the beginnings
of a self boundary in
the mind of the infant.
The shading represents
libidinal cathexis
(investment).
▪ The boundary between
‘self’ and ‘not-self’ has
not yet been firmly
constructed.
The boundary between
the mental
representations of ‘self’
and ‘not-self’ has been
established. The ‘not-self’
includes the object, but
only the ‘self’ is cathected
with libido (shaded area).
The object is only of
interest in its function as a
vehicle for need
satisfaction.
The extension of
libidinal
investment from
self to object. The
arrow indicates the
movement of libido
from self to object.
A state of libidinal
cathexis of the
object now
coexists with the
residual
narcissistic
cathexis of the self.
Deriving from
withdrawal of libido
from the object.
Can occur in a number
of circumstances.
The narcissistic path
• The image of oneself
• The image of what
one was
• The image of what
one would like to be
• The image of one that
was once felt to be an
extension of oneself
The attachment path
• The woman who has
fed one
• The man who has
protected one
• Vice versa or mix of
above
▪ The explanatory value of the topographical model began to
break down as Freud and an increasing number of colleagues
worked with patients presenting with narcissism, paranoia, and
melancholia (depression).
▪ Tripartite division of mental apparatus
Id
A mind comprised of an ‘it’ something of myself which feels
foreign (not part of what I recognise as ‘I’. Previously the
unconscious system).
Pleasure principle and Primary process
Ego (or ‘I’) Develops through the development of thought. Task to
manage the pressures of the id, the superego and the demands of
reality.
Superego
Develops through the early years. Conscience,
parental and cultural values and personal ideals.
▪ video: Ego, Id and superego
A child’s first erotic object is the mother’s breast that
nourishes it; love has its origin in attachment to the satisfied
need for nourishment. There is no doubt that, to begin with,
the child does not distinguish between the breast and its own
body; when the breast has to be separated from the body and
shifted to the “outside” because the child so often finds it
absent, it carries with it as an ‘object’ a part of the original
narcissistic libidinal cathexis.
The first object is later completed into the person of the
child’s mother, who not only nourishes it, but also looks after it
and thus arouses in it a number of other physical sensations,
pleasurable and unpleasurable. By her care of the child’s
body she becomes its first seducer. In these two relations lies
the root of the mother’s importance, unique without parallel,
establishes unalterably for the whole lifetime as the first and
strongest love-object and as a prototype for all later live
relations for both sexes.
Freud, 1940 An outline of Psycho-Analysis
A dynamic rather than a static view of the
mind.
Psychoanalytic theory offers a developmental
perspective which emphasises the formative
effect of early relationships.
A mind that defends its self against anxiety
(emotional pain), both internal and external
▪ Milton, J., Polmear, C., & Fabricius, J.
(2011). A short introduction to
psychoanalysis. London. SAGE
Publications Limited.
▪ Tavistock Clinic ‘Understanding Your
Child’ series, published by Jessica
Kingsley between 2004 and 2008. This
series of books is written to help parents,
educators and carers understand more
about their child’s development, and his or
her relationships with their parents and the
wider world. It ranges year by year from
Boswell, S. 2004. Understanding Your
Baby to Waddell, M. 2005. Understanding
12-14-Year-Olds and includes Bartram, P.
2007. Understanding Your Young Child
with Special Needs.
▪ Good starting points:
▪ International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA)
www.ipa.org.uk 020 8445 4729
▪ Anna Freud Centre www.annafreud.org
▪ Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust www.tavi-
port.org
▪ British Psychoanalytic Society www.psychoanalysis.org.uk
0207 563 5000
▪ Northern School of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy
www.nscap.org.uk
▪ Short courses inc Personality Development, The Emotional
World of Children, Institute lectures
PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
So with what does a psychoanalytic
vision of childhood begin?
A DYNAMIC
RATHER THAN A
STATIC VIEW OF
THE MIND.
PSYCHOANALYTIC
THEORY OFFERS A
DEVELOPMENTAL
PERSPECTIVE WHICH
EMPHASISES THE
FORMATIVE EFFECT
OF EARLY
RELATIONSHIPS.
A MIND THAT
DEFENDS ITS
SELF AGAINST
ANXIETY
(EMOTIONAL
PAIN), BOTH
INTERNAL AND
EXTERNAL
What is psychoanalysis: Part 2
◦ Video 1
Defence against anxiety
The key role for the
conscious self is to protect
itself from feeling
overwhelmed, lost and
unable to cope with a reality
that is presented, while
simultaneous trying to make
sense or meaning from that
reality.
Anna Freud made a
particularly influential
contribution to the
thinking about defence
mechanisms. Her work
built upon an
understanding introduced
by Sigmund Freud that
defence mechanisms
distort reality and by
doing so provide a
perception that is less
anxiety provoking
Quick review of Anna
Freud’s work
◦ Video 2
A developmental theory
1905 (revised a number of times over the
next 20 yrs) Three Essays on the Theory of
Sexuality
Polymorphus perversity typical in infant
early development.
Babies, infants and children as sexual
beings, with sexuality transformed through
psychosexual development.
“The Transformations of Puberty” Freud
formalised the distinction between the
‘fore-pleasures’ of infantile sexuality and the
‘end-pleasure’ of sexual intercourse.
A stage theory of infantile sexuality
Libido
An instinct differs from a stimulus in that it arises from sources
of stimulation within the body, operates as a constant force
and is such that the subject cannot escape from it by flight as
he can from an external stimulus. An instinct may be described
as having a source, an object and an aim. The source is a state
of excitation within the body and its aim is to remove that
excitation.
Freud, 1938
Oral
The first stage of libidinal
development: sexual pleasure at
this period is bound
predominantly to that excitation
of the oral cavity and lips which
accompanies feeding. The
activity of nutrition is the source
of the particular meanings
through which the objectrelationship is expressed and
organised;
Anal
In the Anal Stage a highly
cathected mother, who has
presumably earned her cathexis
by attending to the baby’s needs
for a year now, appeals to the
baby to release the bowel
movement not here but there
and not now but then.
Benveniste, 2015
Phallic stage
leading to
Oedipal
complex
The oedipal
complex is
named after
Sophocles’
protagonist,
who
unwittingly
murders his
father and
marries his
mother.
◦ Video 3
Latency
◦ A point at which there is a
degree of resolution of the
Oedipal conflict. It is to a
degree worked through.
◦ The defence of sublimation
orientates interests to:
◦ Sport
◦ Music
◦ Art
◦ Science
◦ Maths
◦ Wider cultural interests
Genital
The completion of
psychosexual development.
Sexual feelings are no longer
self-directed or directed
within the family but now
involve seeking an object in
wider society.
The natural aim of the
sexual drive is now genital
sexual intercourse.
Difficulties in accounting for the
desires and mental development of
women (Feminist critique).
Short
comings of
Freud’s
psychosexual
stage theory
Deficiencies in observational
evidence. (methodological critique).
Doubts about causal evidence
between patients accounts of
childhood and their neuroses
(questions related to the reliability of the
clinical infant).
Adult sexuality as a
compromise
From Freud’s discoveries of the composite
nature of the sexual instinct, the universal
disposition to bisexuality, and the childhood
condition of polymorphous perversion, he
concluded that normal sexuality is precarious
and difficult to achieve. In fact, he suggested
that without cultural repression the sexuality
of a much greater number of persons would
be “perverse.”
Three Essays on
the theory of
Sexuality
Freud concluded that the
controversy over nature versus
nurture missed the point, insofar as
both might together or
independently act to create a
psychological problem. Freud’s
phrase, “a complemental series,”
was based on the insight that “fate
and chance and not one or the
other is decisive”
LACAN: MIRROR
STAGE AND THE
INFLUENCE OF THE
SYMBOLIC
JACQUES
LACAN
‘The whole of Lacan’s work
can be understood within the
context of the intellectual and
theoretical legacy of Sigmund
Freud (1856-1939), the
founder of psychoanalysis.’
(p.67)
DIFFICULT?
‘I’m not surprised that my
discourse may have created a
certain margin of
misunderstanding… I would say
that it is deliberate, if not
entirely deliberated, intention
that I pursue this discourse in
such a way as to offer you the
opportunity to not quite
understand.’
(Lacan, 1955-56/1993, p.164)
THE HUMAN
CONDITION
The imaginary, symbolic and real
are described by Bowie (1991) as
orders that serve to position the
individual within a field that
traverses and intersects him.
BUILDING ON
FREUD’S WORK
Lacan developed a theory of
development based on the belief
that human knowledge has its roots
in what Freud called ‘narcissism’ the
search for an image of one’s self.
IDENTIFICATION
AND ALIENATION
Hence Lacan considers the
moment the infant recognises
himself in his specular image as
a critical moment in the
formation of self-consciousness.
This identification is described
as a transformation that takes
place in the subject, an
introduction to the order of
the Imaginary. This for La …
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